Thursday, January 30, 2020

Dynamics Of Rebellion Essay Example for Free

Dynamics Of Rebellion Essay When the Seven Years’ War (1756 – 1763) ended, England accumulated a considerable financial debt and sought to resolve this problem as fast as possible. Prime Minister George Grenville and his government reasoned that the debt had to be partly decreased at the expense of the Colonies which were held responsible for it by many politicians in London (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). One of the proposed options to raise the necessary revenue was the introduction of the stamp duties, a law which would require a governmental stamp on all important official papers and documents to make them legally acceptable (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). Grenville determined that this tax had to be levied to maintain English troops in America that were supposed to preserve public order there. But the colonists saw no need in the British standing army of ten thousand men in America in time of peace and believed it was stationed on their soil to keep them under control (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). At first, Grenville requested the colonial assemblies to come up with a better mechanism to raise the revenue from the Colonies than his stamp tax law. But as instead of proposing an alternative method most colonial assemblies expressed strong opposition to the proposed tax law, the Stamp Act was passed in March, 1765 and was due to go into effect in the Colonies on November 1 of the same year (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). Colonial response When the news of the act reached America, it was received with a storm of outrage and protests throughout the Colonies. The colonists explained their indignation by the fact that England had no right to impose taxes on them without their consent and because they were not represented in the decision-making process. A special letter was circulated to all the Colonies in which its authors called for a general congress that would be held in the autumn â€Å"Page # 2† of 1765. As a result, the representatives of nine Colonies held the Stamp Act Congress in New York while the other four Colonies expressed their support for its resolutions. The Congress criticized London’s policies, questioned its right to impose taxes on the Colonies, challenged its power to enforce the new law, and issued a Declaration of Rights. Its participants also signed a petition to the King and Parliament of England and called them to repeal the Stamp Act which they believed was unfair and discriminatory (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). Meanwhile, as November 1, 1765 was approaching, the Colonies showed their determination to oppose the Stamp Act. Riots broke out and numerous meetings were organized in many American cities. Governors and newly appointed stamp distributors soon realized that it was impossible and even dangerous to try to enforce the new law. Most distributors finally refused to receive the boxes of stamps that had just arrived from England (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). The general uprising was masterminded by several newly founded organizations, the most famous among which was â€Å"The Sons of Liberty†. It was formed in the summer of 1765 of thousands of men who chose the policy of intimidation of royal officials and were determined to lead the furious mobs to protect the rights of the Colonies. Businessmen also vowed to boycott English goods until the Stamp Act was repealed (Elson â€Å"History of the United States of America†). Rioting in Massachusetts In Boston, Andrew Oliver, who was designated as stamp distributor for Massachusetts, was faced with the same difficulties as stamp distributors in other places. Local townspeople hanged him in effigy which they left in a street. Some neighbors tried to remove the effigy but were intimidated by the rioters into keeping away from it. At first, the majority of members of the City Council did not take the matter seriously. Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard â€Å"Page # 3† requested that the Sheriff send his officers to remove the effigy. However, it turned out that taking down the effigy would put the lives of officers in danger as the crowd was emboldened to attack them (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). At the afternoon meeting of the Council, most of its members decided to give up any attempts to take down the effigy. Some believed that it could be done after the crowd cooled down. But others suggested that the riot was to be taken seriously due to the fact that the majority of townspeople were involved in it. So they suggested that as they had no real support, they should do nothing about the effigy as it would only infuriate the crowd and unnecessarily put their lives in danger (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). By the end of the day, the mob brought the effigy to the Town House, went to a building that had been erected by Mr. Oliver, and destroyed it in a few minutes. After that, they headed for Mr. Oliver’s residence where they first beheaded and then burnt the effigy. Mr. Oliver had sent his family away and with a couple of his friends remained in his house at that moment. After having burnt the effigy, the crowd decided to attack the house. They demolished the fence, broke some windows, and then entered the house only to find out that Mr. Oliver had fled away. Infuriated, the mob declared that they were going to find the stamp distributor and kill him. They then headed for the two neighboring houses to check whether Mr. Oliver was hiding there. He was indeed in one of those houses, but a gentleman told them that Mr. Oliver had just fled to the Castle. No one doubted that if the townspeople had found Mr. Oliver there, they would certainly have murdered him (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). By midnight, the Sheriff and his officers went to Mr. Oliver’s house with the aim of persuading the townspeople to disperse. But the rioters began to hurl stones at them and they had no choice but to retreat. And it was not until after midnight that the crowd dispersed and the town became quieter (Bernard â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765†). â€Å"Page # 4† Uprising in New York The most terrific riots occurred in New York where Cadwallader Colden, the Governor, tried to enforce the Stamp Act and in anticipation of the uprising ordered to strengthen Fort George and had its cannon pointed at the town. He expected the townspeople to get intimidated and disperse, but by introducing such measures he only further infuriated them (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). Colden was so furious that he was ready to fire on the townspeople as soon as they came closer to the gate of the fort. But the Sons of Liberty got wind if his intention and instead of storming the fort they sent a letter to Colden and warned him that they would hang him if he gave the order to fire on the townspeople. Terrified, Colden had no choice but to forbear from any aggression against the rioters (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). A few hours later the Sons of Liberty demanded to hand over to them the boxes of stamps that were kept in the fort so that they could destroy them. Colden’s refusal to cooperate only exasperated the townspeople, who erected the gallows on the Broadway and, like in many other places, hanged the Governor of New York in effigy (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). After that they seized Colden’s elegant coach, which was a symbol of his pride and power and after dragging it around the town, made a bonfire and burned it as well as the effigy and other property from his house. The Governor and other officers did not dare to interfere as they feared that it would trigger a general massacre that none of them would survive (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). After having burnt the effigy and the coach, the mob headed for the beautiful house of the mayor of New York and destroyed it setting fire to his rich library and many precious works of art. However, all these acts did not appease the townspeople’s anger as they failed to get hold of the stamps. The mob sent another letter to Colden in which they threatened to â€Å"Page # 5† storm Fort George and kill all of its occupants if he did not give up the boxes of stamps to them. The Governor finally agreed to have the stamps transported to the City Hall and the rioters never harassed him again (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). Moor, the new Governor of New York who arrived from England, at first also believed that he could enforce the Stamp Act and refused to accept any papers without the governmental stamps on them. But he soon realized the seriousness of the situation and was forced to publicly declare that he would not try to enforce the Stamp Act. All these concessions were not enough, though, and merchants and townspeople were still angry and refused to buy goods arriving from England until the law was repealed (â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765†). Although Colden tried hard to execute the Stamp Act, he received no support from London and later was even severely reprimanded by English Government for having failed to enforce the law (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). The repeal London’s reaction to the uprising in the Colonies was calm. The Government could not send the army to America to punish the colonists and help British officials execute the Stamp Act because it had no money. By 1766, it became obvious that the law had brought more trouble than profit. British merchants complained that they were loosing a lot of money because the colonists were boycotting their goods. Parliament began to realize that insisting on the execution of the act would lead to serious consequences. So, when the majority of Members of Parliament in both Houses voted for the repeal of the Stamp Act, George III granted his consent on March 18, 1766 and the law was officially repealed. As a result of the Stamp Act uprising, the Colonies were victorious and London was defeated. However, larger problems between England and America were not solved and ended later in civil war (Nesnay â€Å"The Stamp Act). WORKS CITED: 1. Bernard, Francis. â€Å"Stamp Act Riot, 1765. † Prologue to Revolution: Sources and Documents on the Stamp Act Crisis, 1764-1766. Ed. Edmund S. Morgan, 1987. 2. Elson, Henry William. History of the United States of America. New York: the MacMillan Company, 1904. 224-231. 15 June 2008 http://www. usahistory. info/American-Revolution/Stamp-Act. html 3. Nesnay, Mary. â€Å"The Stamp Act. † April 2004. 15 June 2008 http://www. marynesnay. com/STAMPACT. pdf 4. â€Å"The Stamp-Act Riot of 1765. † 15 June 2008 http://www. accessgenealogy. com/african/nyriots/stamp_act_riot. htm

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Comparing the Epic of Gilgamesh, Holy Bible and Huck Finn :: comparison compare contrast essays

Gilgamesh is a True Epic The story of the great hero, Gilgamesh, fulfills the requirements of an epic.   Gilgamesh is consistently relevant to society and it conveys timeless themes and messages.  It is in human nature for people to want to excel in life and strive to make a name in this world for themselves.   We want to be remembered by name or for something we have done.   Most, who actually succeed, are forgotten about in a matter of years. However, some are remembered for tens, hundreds, and even thousands of years, because of their great intellectual achievement to feats of outstanding skill.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gilgamesh is not only a character of a story; he is actually a portrayal of people and how they act out of human nature.   He, like many of us, does not want his existence to end when he leaves this world.   He is not content with what he has, good looks, money, and power, and desires more in life.   The Epic of Gilgamesh is a story that we, as people, can relate to.   There are similarities between Gilgamesh’s journey and our own journey through life.   Some of the texts that will be compared with The Epic of Gilgamesh, are the Bible, and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.   The characters of these stories are all have that burning desire to be successful in life, which we can relate to.   These texts span across different time periods and societies illustrating how human nature, particularly the desire to obtain more than one possesses, plays a significant role throughout written and present human h istory.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is in human nature to want to be recognized and receive what one think he or she may deserve.   In the Bible, one of many themes is the quest for something greater than what the seeker currently has, in terms of stature or wealth.   One of many examples is the theft of Esau's birthright by Jacob.   In Genesis 25: 27-34, Esau Sells His Rights as the First-Born Son, Jacob wanted more than his proper inheritance, he wanted the rights as the first born son.   His brother Esau was hungry and asked for some soup that Jacob was cooking.   Jacob answered, â€Å"I will give it to you if you give me your rights as the first-born son.†Ã‚   Jacob could not be content with what he already had.    He wanted a larger portion of the inheritance entitled to the one who is the first-born as well as the title.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Current Issues with Health Care Costs Essay

Health care spending in the U.S. continues to soar to unsustainable levels. There are many strategies and views on ways to contain health care costs, while improving the efficiency and quality of health care. Hospital services, physician services, prescription drugs and technology/medical innovation and the aging population are areas that drive the high cost of health care creating an unaffordable dilemma for consumers and employers.(Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Uninsured individuals who are unable to afford health insurance are less likely to coordinate their care appropriately, leading to poor health outcomes. The aging of the population and the rising cost of health care would cause spending on the major health care programs and Social Security to grow from more than 10 percent of GDP today to almost 16 percent of GDP 25 years from now. That combined increase is equivalent to about $850 billion today. (â€Å"Congressional Budget Office,† 2012) The aging of the baby boomer generation will have an impact on federal spending as well as health care costs. (â€Å"Congressional Budget Office,† 2012) Increase in longevity due to medical advances and technology are a factor in spending growth increases. (Henderson, 2012) The second largest segment of U.S. health care spending is on physician services. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Providers are paid for services rather than patient outcome. This creates little incentive to coordinate patient care with other specialist. A large portion of the aging population has multiple chronic conditions which would benefit from better coordination of care. (White, 2010) With the shortage in primary care doctors and the aging baby boomer generation consuming more care, costs for physicians services will likely increase. A new model of primary care called the patient centered medical home provides better coordination of care, helps lower cost and improve patient satisfaction. (Henderson, 2012) Hospital services account for one of the largest drivers of health care spending. Shortage of  nursing staff is one factor which influences increased wages, as well as the decrease in payment from the Medicare population. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Those costs and differences in reduction of payments are then shifted over to consumers and payers. With the increase in the baby boomer generation, the federal government will need to manage the extra services being utilized through Medicare with an attempt to find ways to reduce payments to hospitals. (â€Å"Congressional Budget Office,† 2012) New and better drugs will help benefit health but may cost more. Prescription drugs are advertised on television each day. Patients are more educated on the drugs used for their conditions and are likely to request from their physician these highly advertised drugs they feel may benefit them. Many physicians are likely to give into the demands of their patients requests leading to more costly medications used that could be avoided. Advancing technology can positively or negatively impact health care costs. Many times over use of technology, especially when there is a less costly alternative can increase health care costs. On the other hand, new technological advances in data collection for a personal health record can be utilized to coordinate care, promoting better quality of care resulting in improved health outcomes and cost savings. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Disease management, Health savings accounts and Retail clinics are just a few of the solutions offered to consumers to help cost. Disease management is offered by many health insurance companies for their members with chronic health conditions such as diabetes, congestive heart failure, asthma and coronary artery disease. Nurses educate the members on their health conditions and help set health goals to help preven t hospitalizations and improve health outcomes. Studies, however, do not suggest this is a proven cost saving strategy. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Health savings accounts allow people to have more control over how their money is spent. Pretax contributions are placed into the account and money can be deducted to pay for medical expenses. There is hope that the HSA will encourage people to focus on lower cost services. Retail Clinics are a creative way to offer routine care in private stores, in large chains and grocery stores. This is a growing trend with health care being provided by a physician assistant or a nurse practitioner. Care is often more affordable and attractive for those uninsured individuals. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Nursing in the future may expand to become more  focused on the role of the primary care provider. With the shortage of primary care physicians states should consider easing the scope of practice restrictions. Nurse practitioners can perform the role of primary care services just as well and effective as physicians do. There are many factors involved in health care costs that the government and private sector must come together in a coordinated effort to improve. There is no single solution to solving the health care spending dilemma. All of the drivers of health care cost must be addres sed in any reform or cost control discussion. Intellectual Honesty Certification I certify that this assignment is presented as entirely my own intellectual work. Any words and/or ideas from other sources (e.g. printed publications, Internet sites, electronic media, other individuals, groups, or organizations) have been properly indicated using the appropriate scholarly citation style required by the department or College. I have not submitted this assignment in its entirety to satisfy the requirements of any other course. Any parts of this assignment from other courses have been discussed thoroughly with the faculty member before this submission so that there is an understanding that I have used some of this work in a prior assignment. References Cowen, PhD, RN, P. S., & Moorhead, PhD, RN, S. (2011). Controlling Health Care costs: Balancing Public and Private Solutions. In J. W. York, & M. M. Gibson (Eds.), Current Issues in Nursing (8th ed., pp. 424-437). The University of Iowa Hassmiller, PhD, RN, FAAN, S. (2010, September). Nursing’s role in health care reform. American Nurse Today, 5(9). Henderson, S. (2012, December 1). The Patient-Centered Medical Home. The American journal of nursing, 112(12), 54. The 2012 Long-Term Budget Outlook. (2012). Retrieved from White, B. (2010, 5/1). How Health Care Reform Will Affect Family Physicians. Family Practice Management, 17(3), 14.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Most Common Death For Adolescents - 1530 Words

There are many causes for an adolescent to die. The most common death for adolescents is suicide. Parents are not aware of how to tell if their adolescent is suicidal or how to condone it. In today s society there are so many ways to help them with their suicidal thoughts. Adolescents should not feel alone with their thoughts, there are forms of help deal with their thoughts. What Causes Suicide There are a variety of situations that can cause an adolescent to become suicidal. Bullying or child abuse can cause a child to become suicidal. They make a adolescent feel like they shouldn t exist anymore or just so worthless. Another cause of suicide is sexual assault. â€Å"A history of physical or sexual is additional factors more†¦show more content†¦Abusing alcohol and drugs can also lead to suicidal attempts. â€Å"Alcohol use has been associated with 50% of suicides,† states Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents. (Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents 871). The Signs of Suicide and How to help your Adolescent When an adolescent becomes suicidal they will show symptoms whether they know it or not. If a adolescent it acting a little different than they normally they do or being distant, that is one an indicator that an adolescent may be suicidal. â€Å"For adolescents symptoms may be similar to those in adults, with signs, such as depressed mood almost every day, crying spells or inability to cry, discouragement, arability, a sense of emptiness and meaningless, negative expectations of self-environment, low self-esteem, isolation, weight loss or weight gain, fatigue or loss of energy, insomnia or hypersomnia, worthlessness and lastly diminished ability to think or concentrate† (Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents 871). â€Å"They may have a change in eating habits for example overeating or undereating† (Fenton 15). Some adolescents may also resort to heavy drinking or overuse of alcohol to drown their though ts. 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