Monday, September 30, 2019

Background Research Essay

Instructions: For each question, respond in one or more paragraphs of at least four complete sentences. Include supporting facts and details from your research in each response. Provide the sources for your supporting research. Using support from your research materials, identify and explain any political, social, economic, or cultural issues that may shape the story. The Holocaust was going on during this book, and this was a time when many children were vulnerable, and the Nazis killed many young kids, but the chances of survival for Jewish and non-jewish teenagers(13-18) were greater because they could be deployed at forced labor. Source: Imagine what it would be like to live in this situation. Using supporting details from your research, discuss the greatest challenges people might face under these circumstances. When some people are asked about something in the past that somebody else went through, they say, â€Å"I can’t imagine†¦..† And in this case, I really can’t imagine how awful it would be to live in this situation. To be sent to a camp where you are stuffed on a train with hundreds of thousands of people, and you don’t know what is going on. You are separated from your family, the only thing you know. You are put into a gas chamber along with millions of other kids who are too young to work for the German’s, and elderly people who are too old to work. To make it easier on the Germans’, they tell you and your family that is going to be used for forced labor that you’re going to take a shower, and you’ll be back later. But, they never, ever, get to see you again. If you live in the ghetto, you are left without shelter and food because you are unproductive and, â€Å"useless eaters.† And finally, it all stopped when the Nazis surrendered, but it was too late for most, they already were gone, or had a important piece of them that was left in the camp chambers. Sources: Based on your research, describe how these circumstances would affect a person’s identity development (crisis, commitment, diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, achievement). The personal identities of people who were in the Nazi camps would be much, much more sophisticated than the average person now a days. In Nazi camps, the identity crisis of a lot of people was most likely, ‘how do I stay alive?’ while peoples identity crisis in todays world might be something as little as, ‘who is a good friend?’. Kids and elderly people didn’t have a commitment during this time period, because they didn’t have the chance to decide what they wanted to do. The Nazi’s decided for them. People in the Nazi camps didn’t have identity diffusion because they couldn’t make any decisions on their own, the German’s made them all for them. They didn’t have identity foreclosure either, because they were not able to commit to anything at the camps because they were just ordered to do whatever the German’s wanted. I suppose that some people in the camps could have an identity moratorium, and it might be, ‘Do I run away and risk being killed? Or should I just stay and work until this is over?’. The identity achievement of one in a Nazi camp might be, ‘after struggling to decide he wanted to stay and work, or run away and have the chance of being killed, he decided to wait, and finally when the war was over and the Nazi’s surrendered, he was set free.’ Sources:

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Jeremy Sumpter Soul Surfer

In 2003, teenager Bethany Hamilton (AnnaSophia Robb) lives in Kauai, Hawaii with her parents Tom (Dennis Quaid) and Cheri (Helen Hunt), and two brothers, Noah (Ross Thomas) and Timmy (Chris Brochu). All are surfers, but she and her best friend Alana Blanchard (Lorraine Nicholson) have grown up with a passion for the sport and enter a competition. Her church youth ministry leader, Sarah Hill (Carrie Underwood), is disappointed when she has to withdraw from a planned missions trip because of the contest.Bethany and Alana place first and third, respectively, while the second place winner, Malina Birch (Sonya Balmores), proves to be resentful. Bethany invites both girls up on the winner's box with her, but Malina ungraciously refuses. The Rip Curl surfwear company offers to sponsor her and Alana in competition.The night before Halloween, Alana and Bethany sneak off with some friends to go surfing. Later while Tom goes to the hospital for knee surgery, both girls go surfing with Alana's f ather Holt (Kevin Sorbo) and Brother Byron (Jeremy Sumpter). As Bethany dangles her left arm in the water, a tiger shark appears out of nowhere and sinks its teeth into it, biting it off near the shoulder. Holt gets Bethany out of the water and puts a tourniquet on her while Byron calls 911. An ambulance meets them on the way to the hospital. Just before starting Tom's knee surgery, Dr. David Rovinsky (Craig T. Nelson) is called to the emergency room to treat Bethany. Besides losing her left arm, Bethany also lost 60% of her blood and David calls her  survival a miracle.Bethany's injury prevents her participating in the Rip Curl photo shoots, but she wishes Alana well. Inside Edition, a television program, offers to provide a prosthetic arm that is cosmetically perfect and has bendable joints, in exchange for an interview. Bethany angrily rejects it when she learns it will not help her surf as it is not weight bearing, due to the size of the stump of her arm. The onslaught of papa razzi also proves to be a great strain on her family and their privacy. The Hamiltons are grateful to Holt for his quick thinking and decisive action that saved her life.Bethany perseveres and, after a recuperation period, gets back in the water and learns to surf with one arm, eventually re-entering the competition. She tells her rival Malina not to take it easy on her, and rejects a five-minute head start offered by the judges. She does not perform well because she cannot stay on the board long enough to go out and catch a competitive wave and Malina wins. Disheartened, she decides to give up competitive surfing. Bethany sees the effects of the 2004 tsunami on television, which places her own problems in perspective.She decides to surprise Sarah by joining the youth group on another mission trip to help the devastated people of Phuket, Thailand. They are understandably afraid of the water, including a little boy. Bethany decides to go into it with a surfboard, hoping this will coa x him into it. It works, and the realization that she can use her gift to inspire people motivates her to take up surfing again.Tom rigs a handle on her surfboard which she can use to prevent falling off while paddling out to the waves, which is not prohibited by the competition's rules. He also voices the belief that she possesses a great surfer's instinct for sensing when the best waves will form. She enters the national championship, thanks Malina for treating her as a serious competitor, and performs respectably, though she is still chasing third place.Suddenly, with only minutes left on the clock, the waves die down and all the surfers can only loiter, waiting for the waves to start back up. Tom's belief in his daughter's instinct is proven when she is the only one to sense a big wave forming, and she alone paddles out. When it forms, the others cannot get out in time and she catches it just as the horn sounds. If  it is in time, she will win, but the judges rule that the tim e has expired. Malina is the winner, but she has finally gotten over her differences with her, inviting her up on the platform to share first place.Subsequently, Bethany lets the reporters interview her. One asks her what she would do if given the chance to undo the loss of her arm. She says that she would still lose it because she can embrace more people now than she ever could with both. The film ends with real video of Bethany surfing after the attack.II. ReactionMy problem with â€Å"Soul Surfer† is that it makes it look too simple. Bethany (AnnaSophia Robb) has a loving family of professional surfers and a big, friendly dog. She lives in walking distance of the beach. She was and is a committed churchgoer and got great support from her spiritual leaders. She was an indomitable optimist with a fierce competitive spirit. But there had to be more to it than that. I applaud her faith and spirit. I give her full credit for her determination. I realize she is a great athlete. But I feel something is missing. There had to be dark nights of the soul. Times of grief and rage. The temptation of nihilism. The lure of despair. Can a 13-year-old girl lose an arm and keep right on smiling? The flaw in the storytelling strategy of â€Å"Soul Surfer† is that it doesn't make Bethany easy to identify with. She's almost eerie in her optimism. Her religious faith is so unshaken, it feels taken for granted.The film feels more like an inspirational parable than a harrowing story of personal tragedy. Even its portrait of her recovery and rehabilitation is perfunctory. There's a particularly unconvincing scene where she's fitted with a prosthetic arm and refuses to wear it. They're making remarkable progress in the field of prosthetics. But the arm that she's offered looks no more useful than the arm that she rips off her Barbie doll the same night (in one of the movie's rare moments of depression). Although I can understand a good prosthetic might not help her bal ance on a surfboard, I believe one might be of use in other situations — and I don't mean cosmetically. Maybe I'm mistaken. â€Å"Soul Surfer† is a wholesome movie, intended as inspirational. Whether it will cheer viewers who are not as capable as Bethany is an excellent question. AnnaSophia Robb is a convincing, cheerful heroine.Dennis Quaid and HelenHunt, as Bethany's parents, are stalwart and supportive, although the script indeed leaves them with no other choice. SOUL SURFER has very poignant moments that will bring tears to your eyes. It has one of those endings that make the movie work, despite some light weight scenes. AnnaSophia Robb as Bethany gives a wonderful performance. A cast of veterans provides great support. The good news is that real courage comes from deep faith in Jesus Christ, not just willpower. There are powerful church scenes, but they shouldn’t alienate secular viewers because they are extremely real. Bravo!III. Psychological DisorderThe Psychological disorder in this movie was Major depression disorder is an (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, unipolar disorder or recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by episodes of all-encompassing low mood accompanied by low self-esteem and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities. The understanding of the nature and causes of depression has evolved over the centuries, though this understanding is incomplete and has left many aspects of depression as the subject of discussion and research. Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health.Its impact on functioning and well-being has been compared to that of chronic medical conditions such as diabetes. A person having a major depressive episode usually exhibits a very low mood, which pervades all aspects of life, and a n inability to experience pleasure in activities that were formerly enjoyed. Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred.[6] In severe cases, depressed people may have symptoms of psychosis. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the patient's self-reported experiences, behavior reported by relatives or friends, and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression, although physicians generally request tests for physical conditions that may cause similar symptomsIV. RecommendationSoul Surfer is a great movie to watch with your family and I would recommend this movie to anyone. This film was very well done and what's better is its all based on a true story and from the looks of the credits where they show real footage they certainly stayed true to it! Robb does a great job as young Bethany who loses her arm to a shark attack, and we follow her struggle to get back in the water and compete as a surfer once again. It's a very emotional film but thanks to some great acting and beautiful scenery it all comes together nicely.

Saturday, September 28, 2019


GE problem for parents and teachers, because stopping bullying is a hard task and they often don't know t he best ways to go about it. There are three key elements to stopping bullying: educating the bullies, Punic sighing the bullies, and protecting the victim. The reason that bullies must be educated is that many of them are not aware of exactly how much they are hurting their victim.Most bullies wouldn't want their victim to become as sushi deal as they have made them. Bullying can come in all sorts Of forms and one that affects girls in particular I s a group of scalded friends excluding them from everything. In cases like these if the bullies understood t hat they had become bullies picking on a victim, they may think twice. The second way to deal with the bullies is to punish them. This could be the o only thing that works for incredibly bad people, because they will only care when it begins to affect the m.Bullying often isn't taken recourse enough, for example, if you punched a person in the middle of the s tree you would probably be arrested, but if it happens in a case of bullying, the perpetrator might only get a detention. The final main way to deal with bullying involves working with the victim. Victim ms of bullying need to their self worth so that they don't just let people bully them. All in all, there is no one is Engle solution for bullying, but it's not good enough to ignore it just because it's hard to deal with. But by SSI nag a combination of these three tactics we maybe able to stop it.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Actions for country, briefing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Actions for country, briefing - Essay Example First thing in analysis of the countries cultural practices is understands the countries history, understanding the present and finally trying to predict the future. This understanding will help in predicting the performance of the industry and also its future existence in the chosen country. Historical understanding of the country provides a clear perception of its tradition and background. It provides us with the reason why certain things are done by the country or the community. In Indian custom and tradition, it is a common practice for every Indian to wash his or her legs before getting inside the house at night. Studying history of the Indians you find that in the past when people used to walk with there bare foot, their feet became dirty and they needed to be washed before entering the house as an hygienic practice and a way to wash the evil ( Willford, 2007 ). This is because they believed that evil always attaches itself to the feet. This shows that the present reaction of p eople to certain things is an indication of the past reaction to the similar thing. Hence understanding of the Countries history is the basic of cultural analysis. The preferred country of choice is Australia. It is one of the Australian Countries found near longstanding trade, cultural links and investment with Asia region. It is almost completely surrounded by Indian and pacific oceans. Australia shares maritime territories with its neighboring countries. The countries that are neighboring Australia include Vanuatu, Solomon Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, new Guinea, East Timor and Indonesia, that are all island countries in Asia-pacific and S.E Asian regions. It also shares an overland border in Antarctic territory that joins territories claimed to belong to many nations. The largest country that neighbors Australia is Indonesia. Indonesia belongs to S.E Asian as well as Asia-Pacific regions. The second

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Consumer behavior of hk people towards ipad (tablets) Dissertation

Consumer behavior of hk people towards ipad (tablets) - Dissertation Example Organizations like Apple have managed to make a mark for themselves in the industry through the launch of innovative products like iPhones, pads and tablets. The market dynamics are driven by the growing consumer demand for hi-tech products that caters to their hectic schedules and supports multiple functionalities for extended usage. Consumers seek multiple functionalities and utilities in a single device that can provide them with extended connectivity and accessibility to desired applications. While market dynamics are strongly influenced by innovative products and services, the key to successful market presence lies in an in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour and attitudes that lead to the final purchase of the product. ... The research study offers an in-depth evaluation of consumer behaviour and attitudes driving the market for tablets and ipads in Hong Kong. 1. Introduction 1.1 Research context and background Marketing strategies and practices have evolved over the years to embrace new and innovative concepts in response to changes in the consumer behaviour and attitudes. Such strategic initiatives are aimed towards improved understanding of consumer behaviour and their perception of products in the market. Several research studies and academic works on consumer behaviour have established the significance of consumer attitudes and their purchase habits in stimulating demand for specific goods or services (Barnett, 2003; Patel and Schlijper, 2000; Liberman, Trope, and Wakslak, 2007). Consumer behaviour refers to the beliefs, perception and opinion of the consumer while making the purchase decision. Prior to globalization, the customer did not have much choice in terms of substitutes and alternatives a nd hence long term customer retention was not much of a problem for businesses. However, over the years, the globalised market environment has exposed the customers to a wide range of brands, substitutes and alternatives in the market. Customer purchase patterns have undergone a dramatic change in terms of brand loyalty and perception of goods and services in the market (OECD, 2011). Organizations are adapting to these changes through aggressive marketing strategies a significant part of which focuses on finding the pulse of the customer and tracing his behavioural pattern while making the purchase decision (Voinea and Filip, 2011). A recent study by Lauren Freedman (2011) on the shopping mindset of the mobile customer reveals that mobile devices

Critical criminology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Critical criminology - Essay Example Plato, for example was in favour of a penal system which was curative, seeking to reform wrongdoers, and spoke out against retribution because it only increases suffering and brings no good result. (Bauman: 1996 , p. 3) Increasingly, laws were created to sustain a dominant view of society and silence any resistance to this from people who would rather escape such tight regulation. An increasing reliance on scientific methods, using all the benefits of new scientific discoveries such as magnification, fingerprinting and evidence based practice had the advantage of rooting out superstition and religion as judicial tools, but it had the disadvantage of subjecting human beings to ever tighter systems of control and regulation. Eventually critical criminology emerged to take issue with the free will argument and look instead at a much wider range of issues which contribute to the way people behave in society. In modern western societies these different views coexist in the academic litera ture and in society at large, because there is no agreement on one single view of how to define crime, its causes, its remedies and the way society should deal with it. Mainstream Criminology and its main assumptions. The fundamental basis of mainstream criminology is the thinking of utilitarianism developed by writers like Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). It is no coincidence that these ideas developed at a time when European society was becoming more urban and industrialized. (Morrison: 1995, pp. 71-76) The close proximity of large numbers of people, often in poor housing conditions and relative poverty, resulted in repeated crime waves and instability in society. This very rational approach to crime assumes that the needs of individuals must be balanced with the needs of society in general, and this results in a suppression of â€Å"deviant† behaviour which harms the majority. One of the good outcomes of this kind of criminology is that it clarifies what is sanctioned by societ y and what is not, and it provides a basis for setting up a universal legal and penal system that aims to treat people fairly. A less positive outcome is a tendency to promote the views and interests of powerful patriarchal figures, focusing on the maintenance of the status quo, and allowing people in law enforcement to abuse their power, often in institutionalised ways which become an inbuilt part of the system. The persecution of black people in America and the outlawing of gay people in most countries until very recently are examples of rules which set out deliberately to benefit one segment of society at the expense of another. Van Swaaningen believes that there are two major belief systems that have been at work in mainstream criminology since the Second World War and these are neo classicism and positivism which he explains as follows: â€Å"the first views crime as the moral lapse of the freely willed individual; the second, as a pathological determinism of individuals cause d by genetic, family or social defects.† (Young: 1997, p. vii) What these two approaches have in common is that they focus on the individual human being as the source of the problem, and they assume that dealing with crime is a matter of dealing with that person. This kind of criminology uses statistical evidence to build up a picture of how when and where crime occurs, and it focuses on methods of prevention and methods of detection and control of offenders. One big

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Cardinal Health Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Cardinal Health - Case Study Example The company also has markets outside the U.S such as in China. The latest analysis of the company reveal that the company has over 30,000 employees, a sales revenue of just over $91 billion, a market value of $ 29 billion and income assets totaling 26, 033. Additionally, the sales growth is recorded at – 9.9 % while the employees growth rate is 1.2%. These figures have led to the analysis that the firm has a medium credit rating. In its last fiscal year, in June 2014, the company was ranked number 22 in the list of FORTUNE 500 companies, number 22 in the FORTUNE 1000 and number 465 in the FT Global 5000 category. Therefore, the company is a trend setter in the healthcare sector and is the world’s top most provider of cost effective medical services to ambulatory service providers, hospitals and pharmaceuticals. For the last two fiscal years, the company has recorded constant growth in earnings per share and dividends given to the shareholders. For example, in 2013, the EPS was 0.97 while in 2014, it was 3.38. For dividends paid, the amount per share rose from $1.09 in 2013 to $1.25 in 2014. However, there was a marked overall decline in the total revenue from around $ 101 billion in 2013, to approximately $91 billion in 2014. This suggests that the shareholders’ wealth has improved in the past two years even though they have recorded significantly lower revenue levels. Therefore, a hold recommendation is appropriate as the shares might yield more value in the following financial quarters. This position is backed further by the latest stock price value of the company. The share moved by 0.6 points and is currently selling at $ 89.03 which is a 0.68% increase. The company’s operating margin percentage has risen from 0.99 in 2013 to 2.27 in 2014, an indication that the NOWC has increased. This signals to the company’s improved working capital. At 2.27, the company is not at risk of

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Financial Issues, Marketing Function and Human Resources in Management Essay

Financial Issues, Marketing Function and Human Resources in Management - Essay Example Organizing: Organising refers to the process of grouping the related activities and assigning them to a manager with authority to supervise it, organizing is an essential function that makes the plans operational by identifying and classifying necessary activities. 3. Staffing: Ascertain how many positions are there in the organization and at what level. Once this information is available, the next task is to collect details such as what type of candidates is required for each position, and accordingly, fill up these positions with the right people. Staffing is a process which includes recruitment, selection, training, placement, appraisal, promotion, and career planning. 4. Directing: After filling the positions in the organization with the right kind of people, the next task is to guide and enable them to achieve the common goals. It Includes;(a). Leading: It is a decisive function of the management in which the worker's employees are led and directed so that the objectives of the organization will be successfully achieved. (b). Motivating: It is one of the most important processes which are stimulating the employees to perform more effectively using their abilities and full potential. (c). Communicating: It is a process of creating, transmitting, and interpreting messages, ideas, facts, options, and feelings.(d). Coordinating: It is a process of measuring the current performance of the employee and assesses whether the given objectives are achieved or not.Now we shall discuss the issues in the management.... successfully achieved. (b). Motivating: It is one of the most important processes which are stimulating the employees to perform more effectively using their abilities and full potential. (c). Communicating: It is a process of creating, transmitting, and interpreting messages, ideas, facts, options and feelings. (d). Coordinating: It is a process of measuring the current performance of the employee and assess whether the given objectives are achieved or not. Now we shall discuss about the issues in the management which a manager should consider and study deeply when planning development, we will begin with the financial issue which should be considered first as no firm can run nicely without enough finance. Financial management is a service activity which is associated with providing quantitative information, of financial nature and that this may be needed for making economic decision regarding the choice among alternative course of actions. Financial management is that specialized function of a general management which is related to the procurement of financial and its effective Utilization for the achievement of the goal of the organization.In the past few years financial management has undergone significant changes as regards its scope and coverage. As such the role of finance manager has also undergone fundamental changes over the years. Profit maximization is not considered as basic idea for making investment and financing decision. The financial management of a firm has to make three important decisions. (1) Investment decision i.e., where the invest funds and in what amount. (2) Financing

Monday, September 23, 2019

Split at the Root by Adrienne Rich Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Split at the Root by Adrienne Rich - Essay Example The author also traces a large amount of influence on her identity stemming from the shadows of her father. These influences not only affected her social persona but also her literary persona as well. Rich claims that her mother was gentile in comparison to her father and that she has her â€Å"Jewishness from him and not from my gentile mother†. The author sees the influence of her father as pervasive and even overwhelming at times in terms of his influence on her identity. Given the backdrop of the Second World War and the years leading up to it, the author is seen beginning to reflect on life as a growing adult. Her father can be seen as a person caught in limbo. On the one hand he is Jewish but he rejects his Jewish roots in order to claim greater breathing space in life. The author claims that her father does not complain of any anti Semitic attitudes diverted towards him. Moreover he rejects institutionalized religion and this can be seen when he asks Rich to read from T homas Paine’s The Age of Reason after she comes back from church. He explains that this would provide her with â€Å"a balanced view of these things, a choice†. ... â€Å"†pushy† Jews of New York, the â€Å"loud, hysterical† refugees from Eastern Europe, the â€Å"overdressed† Jews of the urban South† all contributed to the author’s image of distancing herself from a Jewish identity. Her visit to the immigrant old woman proves that the author just wanted to keep her distance from being Jewish. When asked by the old woman if the author was Jewish, the author immediately replied in negative and this reaction can be seen as more or less of an impulse than a calculated move. The influence of Rich’s father can be seen as acting prominently in this event. His disassociation from his Jewish identity can be seen as an overwhelming influence on the author’s life and identity. However the influence of the author’s mother can be seen as very prominent too. The author’s mother can be seen as exerting Christian values and identity onto the author. For example when the author is filling out h er forms for admission to college her mother stresses that she should list her Christian sect rather than answering as none to the question of religion. Furthermore the author relates that her mother used to take her to church which can also be seen as a method to indoctrinate Christian values in children. In her later life, the author visits a synagogue for the first time in Baltimore which signifies that her Jewish identity had been severed at the expense of her Christian identity. Moreover the author was influenced by her mother to display a very â€Å"gentile† social behavior. Rich was told to dress as simply as possible and to be as well spoken as possible by her mother to display the â€Å"good breeding† instilled in her. She also relates that there was much talk of â€Å"ancestry† and â€Å"background† in the â€Å"southern talk of the family†

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Oneself Changes Essay Example for Free

Oneself Changes Essay God image’ is the subjective emotional experience of God. It is shaped by our experience of our parents and enables us to continue earlier learned relational patterns. The term, God Image is used to refer to one’s internal, intra-psychic, emotional representation of God. The God Image develops during childhood as the children are confronted with their limitations, and recognizes powers beyond their own work in their environment. This essay will focus on the ‘God image’ as it will be trying to explain ‘how Rizzuto show that as the image of one changes, so too, does one’s image of God change’. Before that, this paper will start by briefing a history of Rizzuto. Ana Maria-Rizzuto was an American psychoanalyst who began her interest in looking at Religion through the eyes of her discipline in 1963 when she was asked to teach a course in the seminary on the psychological foundations of belief. She was inspired by Freud’s insights into the role of parents in search of project with patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital. Twenty patience were studied, ten men and ten women. The goal of her project was to study the possible origins of the individual’s private representation of God and its subsequent elaborations. Rizzuto took her basic hypothesis from Freud who had connected the individual’s ‘father in flesh’ with God. Freud claimed that all people create their own gods on the basis of early relationships shaped in childhood. In doing his project, Rizzuto had each one fill out detailed questionnaire and then she interviewed each to gain a comprehensive life history. In order to understand her subjects thoroughly, Rizzuto asked them to talk about themselves at the different stages of their growth, about their relationships, conflicts and problems. Her end goal was to be able to make a complex assessment and come to a clinical interpretation of the quality of each subject’s relationships in those private and subjective areas of experience which do not lend themselves easily to statistical analysis (Graham13-5). Rizzuto focused on the formation of an individual’s private representation of God during childhood, its modifications and uses during the entire course of life. She calls this process of formation the â€Å"Birth of the Living God†. As the image of one change, so, too does the one’s image of God change. Rizzuto says that the images and experiences from the earliest years, before oedipal struggles, seem to play a key role. The child alone does not create a God. According to Rizzuto, the development of a child throws light on the way the image and the concept of God come into being and interact. The new born baby has no interpersonal experience. The infant has the experience of the mother, the father and the siblings. The child has a multitude of interpersonal experiences. It is at age of three when the child becomes consciously curious about God. â€Å"A three year old oedipal child, for instance, has great curiosity and wants to know the why of living† (208). The child is especially interested in the causes of things like, ‘why do trees move? Where does the wind come from? The child ceaseless chaining of causes or animistic notions of causality will inevitably lead her/him to think of a superior being. The idea of God suits a child well because her parents and adult are already in her mind superior beings of great size and power. The child easily moves to an anthropomorphic understanding of God as a powerful being like her parents†(Rizzuto qtd in Winnicott 97) The child soon discovers that God is invisible; therefore, he is left to inner resources to fill the image of God as a living being described for him as a person. The powerful fantasy of the child has to ‘create’ the powerful being. As a result, as the image of o ne change, so, too does the one’s image of God changes. Also, an image of God can be created for a new human being through parental and societal devotion to God as like its parents. The child observes its parents and adults giving devotion to God. Since the child’s parents are like God to the child, the parent’s devotion to someone even greater than themselves is a mystery to the child. The parents and God then become associated and not clearly distinguished. The parents as objects become internalized, form the self and become symbolized by God image (Rizzuto qtd in Nelson 35). Horowitz writes, Rizzuto claims that, it is not known what psychic processes take place inside the child at that early age or the selective procedures that bring him/her to use one type of interpersonal experience and reject nother to form his/her image of God. What is known is that, the child has an image of God which he/she spontaneously uses in his/her questioning about him and in his own religious behavior? This early image may, to be sure undergo changes in later life. â€Å"This does not alter the fact that the child has formed his image of God out of interpersonal ex periences before he is intellectually mature enough to grasp the concept of God†( Horowitz 63). When the time comes for the child to receive formal religious teaching, his image of God and the concept of God will also change just as the image of one change (64). Furthermore, Rizzuto acknowledges the idea of Winnicot who says that, when a child grows and matures, he/she will come to his intermediate area of experience, which constitutes the greater part of infant’s experience, and â€Å"throughout life is retained in the intense experiencing that belongs to the arts and to religion and to imaginative and to creative scientific work† (14). At this stage, â€Å"instead of God losing meaning, his meaning becomes heightened by the oedipal experience and all other pre-genital events that have contributed to the reelaboration of his representational characteristics† (Rizzuto 178). Sometimes, however he may seem to lose meaning, paradoxically, on account of being rejected, ignored, and suppressed or found temporarily unnecessary. Lawrence broadened the understanding of what influences the development of the God Image in line with the idea of Rizzuto. It is now more commonly recognized that other relationships and experiences also impact the development of the God Image. One may again ask that, â€Å"Does young people who have not received any kind of religious education in general develop images of God? † This question can be answered with the findings of Rizzuto. She claims that in a very early age every child begins to form its image of God through parental messages about God. The image of God gets a clearer shape when the child begins to create so called fantasy companions, which help the child till adolescence to master inner conflicts. Amongst others, the fantasy companions can take over the role of a scapegoat, which allows the child to repulse negative impulses or they can help the child to strengthen their feelings of omnipotence or they can become caring companions of the lonely, neglected or rejected child (Lawrence 119 and Winnicot 140). Moreover, Rizzuto claims that even if a child is to be brought up in a religious or unreligious way, he/she will create God as a fantasy companion, whose existence is formed from his/her personal experience with parents and what he/she will learn about God in the environment he/she grows up in. he goes on to say that, nothing can be predicted on how the child will use the information which he/she gets about God. This means that no general statements can be made about the childlike image about God and its further development. For some children God may become very meaningful, for others God might have an evil, destructive character and for some he might not be of any importance at all. Nevertheless, the bottom line is that the as the image of a child or one changes, so, too, does the child’s or one’s image changes (Winnicott 143). Rizzuto agrees that Freud was basically correct in suggesting that God has his origins in parental imagos and that God comes to the child at the time of resolution of the oedipal crisis. That implies that all the children in Western world form a God representation- one that may later be used, neglected, or actively repressed. In all cases the type of representation the child has formed as a result of his personal experience with his self-perception. This is not because the God representation can exert any influence of its own but because the child actively uses his God representation and his transformations of it as an element in maintaining a minimum sense of relatedness and hope. Sometimes this is best archived by totally rejecting God; at other times ‘closeness’ to God offers a better solution (208). To sum up, Rizzuto tries to show that as the image of one change, so, too does the one’s image of God change. He does that by focusing on the development of a child. He writes that, the child create God image through experience and fantasy. Freud believes that only the father provides the imago for an ‘exaltation’ to Godhead but Rizzuto would then argue saying that it is either the father or the mother or both who helps in the formation of the God’s image in the child which can also affects his/her ideas and images of God later in life. Other primary objects like grandparents siblings may also provide some representational components. The entire representational process occurs in a wider context of the family, social class, organized religion and particular subcultures. All these experiences contribute a background to the shape, significance, potential use and meaning which the child or adult may bestow on their God representations.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Anxiety and Depression Among Working and Non-Working Women

Anxiety and Depression Among Working and Non-Working Women DISCUSSION Results in the previous chapter had been very informative and will be discussed in context to hypothesis discussed in chapter 4. The present study was carried out to assess the level of anxiety and depression among working and non working women. A sample of 60 women was taken consisting of 30 working and 30 non-working women from Delhi and NCR region. The independent variables used for the study were working and non working women and the dependent variables studied were anxiety and depression. The results obtained in chapter 4 were analyzed and the discussion related to the hypothesis is presented below. In addition to this, the anxiety and depression was compared in the following groups. Levels of anxiety and depression were compared between working and non working women in anxiety and depression. Levels of anxiety and depression were compared between working and non working women on the basis of nuclear and joint family. Levels of anxiety and depression were compared between working and non working women belonging to the age group 25-35 and 36-50. Correlation between anxiety and depression was also calculated and interpreted. Keeping in view the objectives, four hypotheses were formulated and their discussion and interpretation is as follows. Problem 1: There will be significant difference between anxiety levels of working and non working women A comparison was made between the working and non working women on the basis of their anxiety levels. As it can be seen from the analysis of table 4.2(chapter 4), the anxiety levels of working women is higher than the non working women. The mean value for the working women was 25.00 whereas for non working women the value was 20.23. From the same table it was inferred that there was no statistically significant difference in the anxiety levels of working and non working women. Many studies have been done relevant to this research. A research done by Aleem and Danish (2008) on Marital satisfaction and Anxiety among single and dual career women at Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi summarized that pressure and hassles of jobs not only affect marital life but also proved to be a major source of anxiety particularly among women and also marital satisfaction among working women hardly get disturbed due to their multiple roles but the thought processes seemed to be disturbed that is manifested in the higher anxiety among women. This study supports the findings which show higher mean values in working women than non working women. Mukhopadhyay et al (1993) researched on Working status and anxiety levels of urban educated women in Calcutta and summarized that non working mothers showed higher anxiety levels than their working counterparts with respect to the total anxiety score as well as components, although the differences were statistically non-significant. This s tudy supports the statistically insignificant difference in the results of the present research. Problem 2: There will be significant differences between the levels of depression in working and non working women. A comparison was made between the working and non working women on the basis of their levels of depression. As it can be seen from the analysis of table 4.2(chapter 4), the depression levels of working women are higher than that of non working women. The mean value of depression levels of working women is 11.13 whereas the mean value of the non working women which is 6.1000 showing difference in the depression levels of the two groups. From the table it is inferred that there is statistically significant difference between the two groups (sig 2 tailed=0.034). Many researchers have worked in this field, one such research done by Weiclaw et al(2008) Psychosocial working conditions and the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in the Danish workforce show high risks of depression related to high emotional demands and working with people. Results of another research done by Netterstom et al (2008) The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression showed moderate evidence for a relation between development of depression and the psychological demands of the job. Yet another research done by Melchior et al (2007) studied depression and anxiety in young, working women and men due to work stress. The results showed that participants exposed to high psychological job demands (excessive workload, extreme time pressures) had a twofold risk of major depression or generalized anxiety disorder compared to those with low job demands. The study stated that in previously healthy young workers, diagnosable depression and anxiety is precipitated by work stress. Another research relevant to the present research was done by Balaji et al (2014). A Comparative Study on Depression among Working and Non-Working Women in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This study was done to assess the burden of depression its risk factors among adult female working and non working population. The results indicated that working women suffer more from depression than non-working women. The risk factors for depression were identified as economic problems workplace problems, relationship problems and no personal life satisfaction. The above studies support the results in the present research. The reasons for higher levels of depression among working women could be due to the reason that working women have to focus not only on their work sphere but also on their family life. It has also been observed that working women are not clear about their expectations which not only affect their daily routine but also health status of each and every woman especially in the developing nations like India remains precarious. Also since working women are unable to spend time with their family and not able to give time to their children due to their work it leads to depression in them. And working women also do not have enough time to look after themselves leading to a lot of health issues. These reasons are also supported by a research done by Greenhaus Beutell (2000) Sources of Conflict between Work and Family Roles. This study examined the literature on the conflict between work and family roles and found out that work-family conflict exists when: (a) time devoted to the requirements of one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; (b) strain from participation in one role makes it difficult to fulfill requirements of another; and (c) specific behaviors required by one role make it difficult to fulfill the requirements of another. Whereas non working women have more time to spend with their family, they are able to concentrate on their health, family life and have a lot of time for themselves. These might be some of the reasons why working women rate higher levels of depression than non working women. Problem 3: There will be higher levels of anxiety and depression in females belonging to nuclear families than those staying in joint families. A comparison was done on the basis of anxiety and depression levels among working women of nuclear and joint families. As can be inferred from table 4.4(chapter 4) the anxiety levels of working women from nuclear families is higher than those from joint families. The mean scores of working women from nuclear families is 39.1667 which is higher than working women from joint families which is 15.5556. There is a statistically significant difference between the two groups as can be seen from the value of sig. (2 tailed) =.000 It was also inferred from the same table that the depression levels of working women belonging to nuclear families was higher than those working women belonging to joint families. The mean scores of working women from nuclear families is 18.33 which is higher than those of joint families which is 6.33.There is also a statistically significant difference between the two groups as seen from the value of sig. (2 tailed) = .003 Then another comparison was done on the basis of anxiety and depression levels among non working women of nuclear and joint families. As can be inferred from table 4.5(chapter4) the anxiety levels of non working women from nuclear families was higher than that of non working belonging to joint families. The mean scores of non working women of nuclear families have a mean score of 28.5358 which is higher than the mean score of non working women of joint families which is 13.8824. There is also a statistically significant difference between the two groups as seen by the value of sig. (2 tailed) = .002. It was also inferred from the same table that the depression levels of non working women belonging to nuclear families was higher the non working women belonging to joint families. The mean scores of non working women of nuclear have a mean score of 8.2308 which is higher than that of non working women of joint families which is 4.4706. There is also a statistically significant difference between the two groups as seen by the value of sig. (2 tailed) = .047. So from tables 4.4 and 4.5 (chapter 4) it is inferred that women belonging to nuclear families report higher levels of both anxiety and depression than those belonging to joint families be it working women or non working. Many studies have been done on this and one such research was done by Doby Caplan (1995). Organizational Stress as Threat to Reputation: Effects on Anxiety at Work and at Home. The results of this study showed that high threat stressors were most likely to generate the anxiety experienced at home and for this the anxiety experienced at work was the key mediator. As the above study supports our finding in the present research some of the reasons for this finding could be as in a joint family most of the responsibilities are taken care of by the other family members. There isn’t a lot of burden alone on one woman of the family. The family members of a joint family not only provide physical support but also financial support and are also present mentally and emotionally. So this leads to the overall being of an individual. Whereas in a nuclear family all the work load and responsibility is on one person only be it of work or of the household sphere. Hence it was found that anxiety and depression levels of women belonging to nuclear families are higher than those belonging to joint families. Problem 4: There will be higher levels of anxiety and depression in females in the age group of 36-50 than those in 25-35. A comparison was done among the working women belonging to the age group of 25-35 and 36-50. As can be inferred from the table 4.7(chapter 4) that the working women belonging to age range 25-35 report higher on anxiety levels than that of age group 36-50. The mean score of working women lying in the age group of 25-35 is 30.3684 and of working women lying in the age group of 36-50 is 15.7273. There is a statistically significant difference in the two groups as seen by the value of sig. (2 tailed) =.031 It was also inferred from the same table, that working women of age group 25-35 showed higher levels of depression than the 36-50 age group. The mean score of working women lying in the age group of 25-35 is 13.7368 and that of working women lying in the age group of 36-50 is 6.6364. But there is no statistically significant difference between the two groups as seen by the value of sig. (2 tailed) = .106 Another comparison was done among the non working women belonging to the age group of 25-35 and 36-50. As can be inferred from the table 4.8(chapter 4) that the non working women belonging to the age range of 25-35 show higher mean values on anxiety scale than the age group 36-50 but there no statistically significant difference between them. The mean score of non working women lying in the age group of 25-35 is 22.2308 and of age group of 36-50 is 18.7059. But there is no statistically significant difference in the two groups as seen by the value of sig. (2 tailed) =.489 It was also inferred from the same table that the non working women of age group 25-35 show higher mean values on depression scale than age group 36-50 but there isn’t any statistically significant difference between them. The mean scores of non working women lying in the age group of 25-35 are 6.8462 and of the age group of 36-50 is 5.5294. But there is no statistically significant difference between the groups as seen from the value of sig. (2 tailed) = .499 So from the tables 4.7 and 4.8 (chapter 4) it is inferred that working women of age group 25-35 show higher levels of anxiety than 36-50 age group and other than this no other significant differences were seen in the levels of depression in these two groups. Also no significant difference was seen in the non working women for the two groups. One study which supports our findings was done by Melchior et al (2007) studied depression and anxiety in young, working women and men due to work stress. The results showed that participants exposed to high psychological job demands (excessive workload, extreme time pressures) had a twofold risk of major depression or generalized anxiety disorder compared to those with low job demands. The study stated that in previously healthy young workers, diagnosable depression and anxiety is precipitated by work stress. Another studied stating the importance of family support was done by Dew et al (2009) studied mental health effects of job loss in women. This study reviews literature on involuntary job loss and its effects on mental health among women. The occurrence and duration of lay-off was significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms, but not anxiety-related symptoms. Results showed that among women who were laid off, those who had poor levels of support from their husband and those experiencing more financial difficulties reported higher levels of depression. A study done by Fall et al (2013) on Comparative study of major depressive symptoms among pregnant women by employment status does Multivariate analyses showing that factors such as low education, low social support outside of work, having experienced acute stressful events, lack of money for basic needs, experiencing marital strain, having a chronic health problem, country of birth, and smoking were significantly associated with major depressive symptoms The reasons for higher level of anxiety in working women of age group 25-35 could be since they have just stated with their career so they are mostly anxious about their work. They are new to the professional world, burden of work, new set of responsibilities. Also in India this is the time for women to get married so the pressure of marriage, newlyweds and work leads to anxiety among this age group. Problem 5: There will be correlation between depression and anxiety among working and non working women. It was assumed that there would be a relationship between depression and anxiety. From table 4.9(chapter 4) it was seen that there is a positive correlation between depression and anxiety. This could be seen from the above mentioned table that if anxiety levels increase then so does the depression and vice versa. Research supporting our hypothesis was given by. Birch Kamli (2000) Psychological stress, anxiety, depression, job satisfaction, and personality characteristics in preregistration house officers. This study got lifestyle questionnaires filled by the officers and measured the self rated psychological stress, state anxiety, job satisfaction, and personality characteristics. It was seen that more of women suffered psychological stress, possible anxiety and possible depression Another study was done by Bhadoria (2013). Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Working Women and Non Working Women of Gwalior. As today’s women have a whole set of responsibilities and problems involving the professional and family life, this study tried to compare the levels of depression and anxiety among working and non working women. The results obtained showed significant levels of difference between working and non working women. The above mentioned researches support our hypothesis that if someone has high levels of anxiety then that person shows high levels of depression as well.

Friday, September 20, 2019

CDMA Technology

CDMA Technology â€Å"CDMA† What CDMA Technology is all about? The first proposals for CDMA cellular networks in the USA and Europe (1978-1980) yielded to alternative projects, which later evolved into the GSM and DAMPS standards. However, in the mid 1990s the 2G standard IS-95 was put forward, resting on a fully spread spectrum/ CDMA platform. At a cosmic pace, networks of this standard (later named cdmaOne) gained wide recognition in America, Asia and the former Soviet Union countries. The great success of IS-95, as well as careful analysis and further experiments, had led to acceptance of the spread spectrum/CDMA philosophy as the basic platform for the major 3G mobile radio specifications: UMTS and cdma2000. Both of them are now in the pre-operational stage and undoubtedly will become the main mobile communication instruments for the next decades. As we know it is all about multiple access, so multiple access is subdivided into: * Contention- Based Techniques * Conflict-free technique. CONTENTION BASED CONTROL: This is not in the scope of this project CONFLICT FREE CONTROL It involves the division of system resources into fixed channels which are than reserved by transmit/receive pairs of communication. This is beneficial for channels which require regular and continuos access to a channel like video and audio. Code Division Multiple Access In CDMA systems, channels are defined by the code not by time or frequency. Spread Spectrum rely on pseudo-random waveforms termed spreading codes to create noise-like transmisision.if users can be given different codes that have low cross-relation properties, channels can be defined by these codes. In CDMA channels are defined by Spreading Codes, eg with the direct sequence CDMA two signals can be defined as: Where a1(t) and a2(t) are spreading codes that define the â€Å"channel† of each user signal thus cross relation between a1(t) and a2(t) dictates the performance of CDMA.[1] Technology behind CDMA CDMA technology is based on the Spread Spectrum communication technique, in the past few years this technology has created a revolution in the wireless communication technology; today the users are using 3-G wireless data services and applications like e-mail, and videos calls etc. that requires fast transmission without any loss of data and quality. [2] Importance of Technology CDMA support all channel sizes (5 MHz, 10 MHz, etc.) provide circuit and packet data rates up to 2 Mbps, incorporate advanced multimedia capabilities, and include a framework for advanced 3G voice services, including voice over packet and circuit data. The interaction between mobiles in the same channel is the distinguishing characteristic of CDMA, CDMA Features and Services The features and faster access of data provided by CDMA technology leads the life of an individual to the ease of that comfort level that they need not to worry about anything in respect to the communication level. Benefits of CDMA Affecting human Life: 1 Primary voice features -. a) Call Forwarding Busy (CFB)/Call Forwarding Busy No Answer (CFNA)/Call Forwarding Busy Unconditional (CFU) CFB, CFNA, and CFU allow a called subscriber to have the system send incoming calls, addressed to the called subscribers directory number, to another directory number (forward-to number), or to the called subscribers designated voice mailbox. b) Conference Calling (CC) CC provides a subscriber with the ability to conduct a multiconnection call, i.e., a simultaneous communication between three or more parties (conferees c) Do Not Disturb (DND) DND prevents a called subscriber from receiving calls. When this feature is active, no incoming calls shall be offered to the subscriber. 2 Short Message Service Features a) Short Message Delivery-Point-to-Point Bearer Service (SMD-PP). SMDPP provides bearer service mechanisms for delivering a short message as a packet of data between two service users, known as short message entities (SMEs). The length of the bearer data may be up to 200 octets. b) Cellular Paging Teleservice (CPT) CPT conveys short textual messages (up to 63 characters) to an SME for display or storage. 3 Data transfer The best data transfer technology it has to offer is the EVDO technology, allowing for a maximum download speed of about 2mb/s (about 700kbps in practice), which is similar to what a DSL line has to offer. EVDO is not available everywhere yet and requires a cell phone that is EVDO ready. 4 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) The main advantage of using CDMA cell phone signals for reference clock purposes is that they work better inside buildings, thus often eliminating the need to mount a GPS antenna outside a building. Modulation Technique The modulation technique used in CDMA (specifically in wireless communication in mobile network) is dual-channel QPSK (hybrid phase shift keying (HPSK) or orthogonal complex quadrature phase shift keying (OCQPSK)) The methods used by dual-channel QPSK to Modulate are- Ø Orthogonal spreading Code Ø Scrambling code with Walsh Rotator Ø Pseudorandom codes (Scrambling) Orthogonal spreading Code Spreading transforms each data symbol into multiple data chips. This ratio (number of data chips/symbol) is called the spreading factor (SF). Thus, it increases the signal bandwidth. Data symbols on the I(real, or In-phase data component) and Q(imaginary, or Quadrature-phase data component) branches are combined with the channelization code In downlink it is used to separate different users within one cell, but in the uplink only to separate the different services of one user Generation of channelization code Allocation of code It is showing the root of code tree. It employs the spreading factors 4 through 512, in which 4 to 256 appears in uplink, and SF 512 is added to the SF catalogue in the downlink direction. It also shows how the codes can be allocated. Example: If the code C8,2 is allocated, then from its subtree no codes can be used (i.e. C16,4, C16,5, C32,8). These subtree codes would not be orthogonal with their parent code. Scrambling code with Walsh Rotator How it works? Example: Original data chip divided into its I and Q components (1,1) and a complex scrambling signal (-1,1). When complex scrambling takes place, the phases of these signals are added together (45 ° + 135 ° = 180 °) and the resulting signal constellation is (-1,0). The distance of I and Q from origin represents the power level of the signal. If the original data signal uses equal power levels for control and data channels, then the constellation points will be [(1,1), (-1,1), (1,-1)]. When they are scrambled using a complex scrambling code, the result always lies on either the I or Q axis; that is, mapped into the constellation points (1,0), (0,1), (-1,0), and (0,-1). This means that these phase shifts cannot cause zero crossings Pseudorandom codes (Scrambling) The orthogonal codes can only be used when the signals applying them are time synchronous. So for asynchronous users in the uplink direction if orthogonal spreading codes alone were used in the uplink, then they could easily cancel each other. So to overcome this situation pseudorandom codes are used. In this procedure, the signal, which is spreaded (full bandwidth) with an orthogonal spreading code, is further combined (means XOR) with a pseudorandom scrambling code. This scrambling code is either a long code (a Gold code with a 10-ms period) or a short code [S(2) code] Basic Requirements Hardware Software PLANET EV It is used to designing evaluation of network problems also provides a comprehensive set of coverage and interference analyses of different cell sites. Bangarpet%20Coverage%20MEIRP Tems Investigator * It provides view of the network. * It can evaluate the functionality of Call processing and received base station signal quality Tems Deskcat It estimates the performance of the network infrastructure. It can provide a comparison of oue network with the competitors network Antenna Editor It provides a view of Horizontal and vertical pattern of antenna. Skills Fault management The fault report must contain enough information so that the management system can make the right analysis and react correctly. Configuration management; Once the number of subscribers increases, new capacity is needed; thus, new equipment must be bought Performance management Ø Traffic levels within the network, both user data and control signalling Ø Verification of the network configuration Ø Resource-access measurements Ø QoS Ø Resource availability Roaming management A roaming agreement is a contract between the home-network operator and the serving-network operator User equipment management This is a feature that allows a network operator to trace the particular subscriber within the network. Software management The main software-management process can contain the following stages: Ø Delivery of software from the vendor Ø Forwarding of the software to network elements or element managers Ø Validation of the software to ensure that it is not corrupted Ø Activation of the software to an executable state ENHANCED SUBSCRIBER AUTHENTICATION ALGORITHM This method utilizes the Authentication and Key Agreement which provides mutual authentication between a base station and mobile terminal with increased key size. Mutual authentication overcomes the problem of false base station attacks, thereby preventing the voice privacy or private identity information of the subscribers from being compromised. The ESA algorithm also dismantles the cryptographic attacks such as reconstruction attack and list attack, thereby enhancing the security of existing CDMA systems. The simulation results also clearly Indicates that ESA based systems consume less power and the error rate is also less when compared with CAVE based system. Thus, the Enhanced Subscriber Authentication algorithm enhances the security of the CDMA systems. Advantages of CDMA 1. No frequency management In CDMA we are not required to use different frequency where as in both TDMA and FDMA the frequency management is always a critical task. Since there is only one channel in CDMA, no frequency management is needed. 2. No Guard Time in CDMA. In TDMA uses the concept of guard time so as to avoid interference between simultaneous users whereas in case of CDMA we are not required to add guard time which result in efficient use of bandwidth. 3. No Hard Handoff As we CDMA is based on code sequence and uses the same frequency, the connection to the new cell site can be made without breaking the connection of the current cell. And it also requires less power, which reduces interference and increases capacity. 4. Use of Rake Receiver In CDMA have rake receiver which is multiple receiver in one which identifies three multi-path signals and combines them to make a very strong signal. Both mobile and cell site use rake receivers. Whereas in case of GSM handsets it picks the first the first signal it gets. No matter what is the strength of signal? 5. Power Adjustment in CDMA- in CDMA handset itself can adjust at which they transmit the signal. This insures that base station is receiving signal at the power which is needed. Both forward and reverse link uses power control techniques. Where as in case of GSM network handset will transmit at the fix setting whatever the distance between handset and base station is. The base station would face extremely strong signal from the nearer and extremely low from the farer device which result in Near-Far Problem. 6. CDMA can have this flexibility with their own service that stores data on the operators database. So if the cell is lost then its contact any other information can be recovered where as in case of GSM if mobile is lost then SIM is also lost. 7. CDMA capacity is around 10-20 times to FDM and approx 4 times to TDMA. 8. More coverage comparatively GSM One of the main advantages of CDMA is that dropped only when the phone is at least twice as far from the base station. 9. CDMA also have better security and higher data and voice transmission quality because of the spread spectrum technology it uses, which has increased resistance to multipath distortion. Disadvantages of CDMA 1. Connection fixed with the Handset- The main problem with CDMA technology that customer faces it that it does not allow to change handset easily because many functionality is embedded in the handset whereas in case if it uses SIM card that identifies a user and stores the information in the handset. The SIM card can be swapped between handsets, which enable to move all the contacts to the new handset with ease. 2. international roaming In case of international roaming handsets with GSM is far better than CDMA handsets because GSM is used in most the markets across the globe. 3. Battery Life- The battery life in case of CDMA is lesser as compared to TDMA because CDMA handsets transmit data all the time but TDMA does not require constant transmission. CDMA is best suited for implementation 1. For Microcell and in-building Systems: CDMA is probably the best system for microcell and in-building systems. The embedded microcell shares the same frequency and has full connectivity with the overlaying macrocell. The capacity of microcell and macrocell is derived and simulated at various traffic distributions. The microcell capacity is 1.03 to 1.12 times the capacity of a regular cell. The capacity of the combined microcell and macrocell is 2.00 to 2.11 times that of a regular cell. The microcell and macrocell performance is also analyzed in terms of RF reliability, soft hand-off factors, and interference and power levels. The macrocell RF reliability will degrade more seriously than that of the microcell. The radio hand-off factors of the microcell are about 11% higher than that of the macrocell. The average required forward traffic channel power of the microcell is about 10% less than that of the macrocell. Microcell engineering guidelines in a commercial CDMA system are als o provided. The results show that embedding the microcell in an existing CDMA network could be a very efficient way to improve hot-spot capacity and dead-spot coverage.[1] 2. For rural area  § CDMA is that dropped only when the phone is at least twice as far from the base station. So it will be profitable in constructing the number of tower where in case of GSM it will be more because its coverage area is less.  § CDMA handsets can also work with anolog signal; we can get at rural areas where digital signals cannot be transmitted. 3. For Dense area CDMA uses spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel, coding provides more users for the same amount of available power used in other system. Problems In Implementation of CDMA Ø Spectrum Shortage The major problem faced by CDMA technology is lack of available spectrum and this is hindering their subscriber growth. In India CDMA operators are having problem in allocation of spectrum in 1900 MHz band which is common in other regions. According to B.B. Anand (President for Regulatory Affairs at Reliance Infocomm ) It is of the utmost importance that the 1900 MHz spectrum be allocated to CDMA operators in India to ensure that the region remains part of the international community of roaming wireless subscribers worldwide,[1] In India the band was allocated to Defense Services for their mobile communication usage. However upon the launch of mobile communication services for public, coordination was sought from the Defense department to make the spectrum available for mobile services. The Defense is releasing some spectrum through auction but it is opposed by the GSM operators on the commercial ground for preventing growth of CDMA Ø Low performance in hilly regions- The towers in CDMA interfere with each other and normally they are installed on much shorter towers and because of this CDMA (IS-95 standard) may not perform well in hilly terrains and India has plenty of such region in north region. Ø Near Far effect- In Near Far effect the code transmitted from a transmitter (A) to receiver is interfered by another transmitter (B) which is nearer to the receiver as compared to sender transmitter and this make difficult for identification of the original signals by the receiver .This effect became a major obstacle for successful implementation of CDMA technology. It is very expensive to solve the near far problem in a CDMA system. The precision power control algorithm are used to solve near far problem which consists of open loop power control and closed loop power control and this make a CDMA transreciever very complicated in both hardware and software implementation. Ø Breathing of Base Stations, where coverage area shrinks under load. In CDMA as number of subscribers using a particular sit increases the range of that site goes down. In other words unlike GSM where number of users are finite but in CDMA users are not finite and in more load the voice quality goes down. Design And Implementation of CDMA CDMA basics The CDMA technology works on basic principle of communicating through specific code on available frequency instead of assigning a specific frequency. Since users are specified by code they are able to use same carrier frequency and this eliminates the frequency reuse problem encountered in other technologies. Implementation At Sender site cdma Steps in generation of CDMA signals 1. Analog to Digital Conversion of Voice: CDMA uses Pulse code Modulation (PCM) for converting analog voice or audio to digital signal. This process is also known as digitalization. 2. Voice Compression: CDMA uses a special device VOCODER to do voice compression. They are located at the BSC and in the phone. While talking we give space or pause between words and CDMA takes advantage of these pauses in speech activity by using a variable rate vocoder. There are four data rates at which vocoder compresses the voice signal and they are  ½,  ¼, 1/8 and Full. Vocoder uses its full rate when a person is talking very fast. It uses the 1/8 rate when the person is nearly silent. 3. Encoding and Interleaving: Encoders and interleavers are built into the BTS and the phones. They build redundancy into the signal so that information lost in the transmission can be recovered. CDMA uses convolutional encoding to encode audio signals provided by VOCODERS. Interleaving is used to reduce the effects of burst errors and recovering lost bits. 4. Channelization: The encoded data after encoding and interleaving is again encoded to separate it from other encoded data. After that encoded signals are spreaded over the entire channel. CDMA uses WLASH code to channelize user on the forward or upward link i.e. from BTS to mobile and Pseudorandom noises to channelize user on reverse link or downward link i.e. from mobile to BTS. 5. Converting digital signal to a Radio Frequency (RF) signal. The channelized data from all calls are combined into one signal and then it is converted into radio frequency signal for transmission. A more relevant and self explanatory example is show below of transmission through base station. As explained above each conversation is compressed with a vocoder and the output is doubled by a convolutional encoder that adds redundancy for error checking. The encoded bit are then channelized and all calls are combined and modulated onto a carrier frequency. At Receiver site At receiving site the steps followed are just opposite of sender site 1. Conversion of RF signal to digital signal 2. Despreading the signal 3. Deinterleaving and decoding 4. Voice decompression 5. Digital to analog voice recovery RF signal are converted into digital signal by quantization into bits (chips) by the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The output is deschannellized and decoded through a decoder know as Viterbi decoder which corrects the errors using the convolutional code. The output goes to the vocoder for decompression and then to digital-to-analog converter (DAC), which decompresses the bits and turns them back into waveforms (sound). Reference 1. Unknown (14 Oct 2004).CDMA Wireless Community Calls For Harmonized Spectrum Allocation.Available: Last accessed 3 March 2010. 2. Available: Last accessed 30 March 2010. 3. Available: Last accessed 16 March 2010. 4. Available: Last accessed 23 March2010.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Mother Daughter Relationship in Two Kinds by Amy Tan :: Two Kinds, Amy Tan

I’m not You, I’m Me For many of us growing up, our mothers have been a part of who we are. They have been there when our world was falling apart, when we fell ill to the flu, and most importantly, the one to love us when we needed it the most. In â€Å"Two Kinds† by Amy Tan, it begins with a brief introduction to one mother’s interpretation of the American Dream. Losing her family in China, she now hopes to recapture part of her loss through her daughter. However, the young girl, Ni Kan, mimics her mother’s dreams and ultimately rebels against them. In the beginning, Ni Kan, is â€Å"just as excited as [her] mother† about the idea of becoming a prodigy (749). She imagines herself in different roles and believes that once she has â€Å"become perfect,† (749) her parents will approve of her. However, her mother’s obsession becomes extreme when she is forced to take numerous tests on a daily basis. Ni Kan points out, â€Å"The tests [are] harder- multiplying numbers in my head without using my hands, predicting the daily temperatures in Los Angeles, New York, and London† (749). Eventually, her mother persuades her into taking piano lessons, which becomes the prime focus of determination. As the story unfolds, Tan suggests that the piano symbolizes different things. For Ni Kan, it is the unwanted pressure her mother inflicts upon. She argues, â€Å"Why don’t you like me the way I am? I’m not a genius! I can’t play the piano† (751). However, her mother sees it as a way for her daughter to become the best. Ultimately, the young girl decides to rebel against her mother’s wishes. During her piano lessons with Mr. Chong, her piano teacher, she learns easy ways to get out of practicing. Ni Kan discovers â€Å"that Old Chong’s eyes were too slow to keep up with the wrong notes [she] was playing† (751). As a result, Ni Kan performs miserably in a talent show where her parents and friends from the Joy Luck Club attend. Feeling the disapproval and shame from her mother, she decides to stop practicing the piano.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Dylan Thomas Essay -- Dylan Thomas Poetry Poets Biography Essays

Dylan Thomas Dylan Thomas was born on October 27, 1914 in Swansea, Wales. His father was a teacher and his mother was a housewife. Thomas was a sickly child who had a slightly introverted personality and shied away from school. He didn’t do well in math or science, but excelled in Reading and English. He left school at age 17 to become a journalist. In November of 1934, at age 20, he moved to London to continue to pursue a career in writing. His first collection of poems called 18 Poems was released in 1934. Many people loved his work, and he gained instant recognition. His second collection released in 1936, 25 Poems, was also popular. The year he released his second collaboration of poems was also the year that he met his future wife, Caitlin MacNamera. They decided to get married in July of 1937, and moved to Laugharne, Wales in 1938. One year later, they had their first child, Llewelyn. He was followed by Aeronwyn in 1943 and Colm in 1949. Thomas’ poetry reflected much about his life style and outlandish way of thinking. He was particularly interested in writing about death, and most of his poems have hidden messages relating to death and his fascination with it. Thomas went back and forth with religion, the meaning of life, and what happens in the after life. His fickle beliefs went from joyous faith in God to extreme religious doubt. Thomas’ vacillating religious beliefs had a lot to do with his reckless lifestyle and love for the drink. He would often go out to the bars and be gone for hours at a time, leaving his worried wife and children oblivious to what he was doing. His wife soon found out about his problem, and became concerned. His drinking began to get out of control when he would get ... Dylan Thomas set out to convey a message about not giving up on anything but especially not on and he certainly gets this point over meaning his poem is very successful. Christina Rossetti tries to get a very different message across and she's trying to help people accept the death of people they loved. Her poem is also effective as it calms and tries to soothe the reader into accepting dying is a part of life and yes we may be sad but we have to learn to live with it, to accept it and to cope with it as life goes on Dylan Thomas' poem made more of an impact on me because it is so much more powerful and I can feel the atmosphere he creates. Also I agree with how he feels and what his poem says which always helps when trying to create an impact. I like the narrator's perspective in Thomas' poem, which is effective in enabling me to empathize with him. Dylan Thomas Essay -- Dylan Thomas Poetry Poets Biography Essays Dylan Thomas Dylan Thomas was born on October 27, 1914 in Swansea, Wales. His father was a teacher and his mother was a housewife. Thomas was a sickly child who had a slightly introverted personality and shied away from school. He didn’t do well in math or science, but excelled in Reading and English. He left school at age 17 to become a journalist. In November of 1934, at age 20, he moved to London to continue to pursue a career in writing. His first collection of poems called 18 Poems was released in 1934. Many people loved his work, and he gained instant recognition. His second collection released in 1936, 25 Poems, was also popular. The year he released his second collaboration of poems was also the year that he met his future wife, Caitlin MacNamera. They decided to get married in July of 1937, and moved to Laugharne, Wales in 1938. One year later, they had their first child, Llewelyn. He was followed by Aeronwyn in 1943 and Colm in 1949. Thomas’ poetry reflected much about his life style and outlandish way of thinking. He was particularly interested in writing about death, and most of his poems have hidden messages relating to death and his fascination with it. Thomas went back and forth with religion, the meaning of life, and what happens in the after life. His fickle beliefs went from joyous faith in God to extreme religious doubt. Thomas’ vacillating religious beliefs had a lot to do with his reckless lifestyle and love for the drink. He would often go out to the bars and be gone for hours at a time, leaving his worried wife and children oblivious to what he was doing. His wife soon found out about his problem, and became concerned. His drinking began to get out of control when he would get ... Dylan Thomas set out to convey a message about not giving up on anything but especially not on and he certainly gets this point over meaning his poem is very successful. Christina Rossetti tries to get a very different message across and she's trying to help people accept the death of people they loved. Her poem is also effective as it calms and tries to soothe the reader into accepting dying is a part of life and yes we may be sad but we have to learn to live with it, to accept it and to cope with it as life goes on Dylan Thomas' poem made more of an impact on me because it is so much more powerful and I can feel the atmosphere he creates. Also I agree with how he feels and what his poem says which always helps when trying to create an impact. I like the narrator's perspective in Thomas' poem, which is effective in enabling me to empathize with him.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

How Global Warming Impacts the World

Nowadays, we are concerned with the increasing temperature nowadays, which has a great effect on the earth. When it becomes hotter, the most evident change we can see is in sea level. Icebergs all over the world are melting and change from ice to water, which has larger volume. As a result, more space has to be occupied to contain water instead of icebergs, and sea level increases. Many beaches are getting smaller, and some islands are even disappearing. It was also reported that some countries based on the islands of East Asia had to move to Australia because of the increasing sea level. Animals and human are suffering from the process. Not only polar bears, but also penguins and other animals have less space to live on or less food to eat because of the melting icebergs. Meanwhile, they are used to cold weather and are forced by global warming to get used to a higher temperature, which may increase their death rate. Human are also affected. The number of people dying from extreme hot weather is increasing, which makes the others worry al lot. In an addition point, global warming also has impacts on agriculture. Weather conditions and soil change in response to global warming, and as a consequent, places like Russia benefit from global warming for they can grow more kinds of food in a larger area, while places like Africa suffer from the expanding deserts results from global warming. Despite agriculture, there are also other indirectly effects on economy and many other aspects, and people are now finding solutions for them. The first thing to do is giving out less Carbon dioxide or other gases related to global warming. To achieve the goal, less electricity should be used, car should be driven less frequently, and alternative energy resources should partly replace the traditional ones. Greater emphasis has been put on planting trees to absorb Carbon dioxide. In the short term, special zoos can also be set up for animals like polar bear to provide them with enough food and places. As it can be seen, climate change has directly or unconsciously impacts on ecology, agriculture and other aspects. Serious though it seems, it can be solved with technology and everyone's efforts.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Newell Company Essay

1. Does Newell have a successful corporate-level strategy? Does the company add value to the businesses within its portfolio? * Newell’s corporate-level strategy focuses on the growth through acquisitions of companies that manufactured low technology, nonseasonal, noncyclical, and nonfashionable products that volume retailers would always keep on their shelf. These companies usually manufacture brand-name staple products that ranked #1 or #2 but may not be efficiently managed. * Newell’s goal is to increase its sales and profitability by offering a comprehensive range of products and reliable service to the mass retail channel. Newell has chosen to develop its product line through key acquisitions, rather than internal organic growth. The strategy succeeds based on their two pronged approach of following an established acquisition process (Newellization) and ensuring corporate continuity across the division to support its performance in the market. This strategy helps Newell successfully diversify their portfolio of products for mass retailers. 2. What are Newell’s distinctive resources? * Pricing model that that covers across all product categories: Newell used different pricing point, â€Å"good,† â€Å"better,† and â€Å"best† to meet all customers needs achieving the critical mess 3. What challenges faced the company in the late 1990s? * One of the main challenges in the late 1990s was the increase in customer buying power. By 1997, three mass retailer chains controlled 80% of the discount retailer market. This allowed retailers to obtain significant leverage over price and scheduling. * Another challenge in the 1990s was the acquisitions of Calphalon and Rubbermaid. These were both major stepping stones for Newell in that both companies will bring greater brand recognition to the Newell brand. It was a challenge because of the speed in which the companies were acquired and the short amount of time between the two acquisitions. At the time, Calphalon was in a different market, and Newell wanted to enter the department and specialty store competition. This required changes within the Newell Company because of a different view of products and competition. Rubbermaid was a difficult acquisition because of the vastness of the company in general. Some  industry observers worried that this target would be too large to be â€Å"Newellized.†

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Revealing Sweeney Todd: Exploring a 19th Century Penny Dreadful as a Literary Classic

In 2013 the mention of the character Sweeney Todd conjures up images of Johnny Depp dressed in dramatic makeup and singing in a high budget film production; however, today’s audiences may not be aware of the villain’s extensive history in English literature and the numerous transformations that took place before the creation of the musical monster. From its origin as a serialized Penny Dreadful to an elaborated text and eventual stage play, the infamous barber Sweeney Todd has become a well- known literary character. Sweeney Todd first appeared in the Penny Dreadful titled â€Å"A String of Pearls. A romance† published anonymously in 1846/1847. The first work was subject only to negative criticisms as a cheaply written tale for the lower classes of England. As the story has moved through time and Sweeney Todd has gained popularity, this original text deserves recognition beyond that of a simple immoral tale. The mysterious plot of the story guides readers through a suspenseful narrative laden with mystery and surprise. Much in the way that the pieces of the story are revealed, it is apparent that the 1847 â€Å"A String of Pearls. A Romance. † be exposed as a great work in English literature. I will examine the ways in which the story’s title misguides the reader in plot and twists the story’s overall context, ultimately robbing it of the credit it deserves. I will then look at the ways in which the story’s potential fame has been masked behind nineteenth century literary critique. Based on the title of the piece, the string of pearls would appear to be the key plot element of the story. The reader assumes that the plot will be driven forward by the stolen gems and that ultimately they will be the treasure that brings together the lost lovers at the end of the tale. Conversely the pearls end up leading the reader astray, becoming only important in subplots of the story (Mack 120). The introduction of the string of pearls is within the first chapter when Sweeney Todd burgles them from Mark Ingestrie before murdering him in his barber shop. The pearls are the treasure Mark Ingestrie had brought back for his betrothed, Johanna Oakley and while the tale is dedicated to the strand of pearls, they are only the motivation for plot movement in two of the thirty nine chapters, appearing only when the barber tries to sell them off for profit. The pearls misguide the reader in plot; however, it is the secondary title â€Å"A Romance† that misrepresents the gothic form of the story. Gothic literature originated in the mid eighteenth century and was targeted toward the same middle-class audience as novels (Davison 2). What separated the genre from the majority of works at this time was its focus on ghostly and mystical material and settings. Most critique of gothic works during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was centered on its immoral nature as it was claimed that the literature appealed to readers’ corrupt tastes (Davison 5). Certain elements of literature are prescribed solely to the gothic and can easily define a work as belonging to the genre. According to Davison there are three features that can always be found within a gothic; horror, romance and mystery (7). With this description in mind and the fact that â€Å"A String of Pearls. A Romance† was a penny dreadful whose roots were founded in the gothic genre (Anglo 1), it is easy to place the story within the realm of gothic literature. Looking specifically at the three elements outlined by Davison, it is questionable as to why â€Å"A String of Pearls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  was published as a romance. The romance in the story is typical of eighteenth century tales, where love is the cause of immense joy or upset to characters. Reactions of romantic characters of the period are expected to be over the top dramatically (Davison 58). The romantic characters in the story, Johanna Oakley and Mark Ingestrie fit this description accurately. Johanna’s love for Mark Ingestrie is unbearably strong and the reader is subject to her immense folly as she learns of his possible death. She cries â€Å"Oh, Heaven why have I lived so long as to have the capacity to listen to such fearful tidings? Lost- lost- all lost! God of Heaven! What a wilderness the world is now to me! † (Lloyd 28) after learning that her betrothed did not return from his trip at sea. Mark Ingestrie also shows brief moments of extreme emotion when he believes that Johanna has betrayed him for another man; he admits to himself that he is all alone as â€Å"she whom I loved is faithless† (Lloyd 61). While the two romantic characters in the story prove to be accurate portrayals of romance literature at the time, their melodramatic outbursts are rare within the story and do not pre-occupy the tale. Much more prominent in the story is the terror induced by the characters of Sweeney Todd and Mrs. Lovett. Sweeney Todd is described as maniacal in both appearance and action while the crime duo haunt the entire town, feeding their victims flesh to the population of London. The opening chapter of the story introduces the reader to Todd and from the beginning Todd gains his reputation as the story’s villain. Described as â€Å"ill- put-together†¦with an immense mouth and such huge hands and feet† (Lloyd 2), the barber is made to appear monstrous. His laugh is also described to the reader early on to be so terrifying that a customer comments â€Å"do you call that a laugh? I suppose you caught it of somebody of who died of it. If that’s your way of laughing, I beg you won’t do it anymore. † (Lloyd 4). It is not only his horrific appearance introduced in chapter one, but also Todd’s wicked personality. It can hardly be taken as a joking threat when the barber leans into his apprentice Tobias and warns â€Å"listen to me, and treasure up every word I say†¦ I’ll cut your throat from ear to ear, if you repeat one word of what passes in this shop† (Lloyd 3). From the beginning of the tale, readers are cautioned that this character possesses the traits that will turn this tale into a terror. Todd’s partner in crime is also subject to an introduction highlighting her villainous features. While Mrs. Lovett is described to be physically very appealing, her eyes and smile portray the evil within her. It was said that her â€Å"smile was cold and uncomfortable-that it was upon her lips, but had no place in her heart†¦and there was a lurking devil in her eye† (Lloyd 18). The description given of Mrs. Lovett, with the lurking devil in her eye became a favourite for gothic fiction writers, the language enabling it to evoke an eerie presence within the character (Mack 126). Mrs. Lovett’s outward appearance as a young beautiful woman hides behind this demonic smile and veils her customers from what is in her basement and in her pies. The horror spread by the baker and the barber is that of the urban unknown. The story utilizes feasible fears created in an urban center such as London and through Todd and Lovett plays them out to their full effect. The dreadful partners tap into anxieties that are deeply rooted in people’s minds in cities with large populations and high rates of crime. A serial killer paired with cannibalism is not far-fetched horror; it is a fear that lies as a realistic possibility within all of us (Hand 141). Hand points to the fact that while some villains such as Van Helsing, and Jekyll and Hyde have lost their scare factor; Sweeney Todd continues to fill the role in horror due to his believable terror (141). Due to the fact that Sweeney Todd and Mrs. Lovett possess such strong horror characteristics, it is impossible for the story to remain in the realm of romance. The two characters are the driving force that make this tale so enticing. It is these two characters alone that transform the romance into a terror (Mack 103). The attributes of horror are more prominent in the tale, as the love between Johanna Oakley and Mark Ingestrie become a subplot to the terrifying murder and cannibalism taking place. It is because of this that I believe the story is titled incorrectly. Just as the pearls are not of great significance to the plot, the romance also leads the reader astray from the true gothic element of the story. The class distinction and segregation of London in the eighteenth century shows itself prominently in the story. Mark Ingestrie destined to be a lawyer and respectable middle class man runs away in hope of finding treasure at sea. Changing his name to Lieutenant Thornhill, his journey proves a success until his return to London and loss of treasure. He then takes his place as a working class citizen, making pies for Mrs. Lovett under the name Jarvis Williams. The character’s multiple roles in the story at different class levels, is a similar structure taken by the story â€Å"A String of Pearls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  itself. The first time â€Å"A String of Pearls. A Romance. was published in 1846 it was in Edward Lloyd’s weekly magazine People’s Periodical and Family Library. The serialized story ran for eighteen weeks and had a total of thirty nine chapters (Weltman 1). Lloyd’s publication was considered to be a Penny Dreadful, aimed at middle class London readership (Anglo 46). Penny Dreadfuls were serialized literature that provided cheap and entertaining reading for th e English working class in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. They rose in popularity as the rates of urbanization and literacy increased in country. The demand created for affordable literature was met with a transition from chapbooks to Penny Dreadfuls (James and Smith xi). Penny Dreadfuls have their roots in gothic literature, as they tended to take commonly known tales from the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and embellish them with details of crime and gore (Anglo 10-11). The first Penny Dreadful tales were aimed at an audience of all ages and sexes and were known commonly as â€Å"bloods†, however, by 1860, the serialized pieces were enjoyed predominantly by young boys (Anglo 12). Due to their cheap and quick production, Penny Dreadfuls were subject to much criticism (Dunae 134). In a severe critique made in by the evangelical society of London in the nineteenth century, Penny Dreadfuls were said to be â€Å"devoid of every element of sweetness and light and are filled instead with blood and revenge, of passion and cruelty, as improbable and almost impossible in plot as they are contemptible in literary execution† (Dunae 135). Criticisms such as this were common during the publication of Penny Dreadfuls as they threatened the didactic and moral literature children were preferred to have indulged in. The upper classes looked down on the works as immoral and sensationalized crime stories (Dunae 140). According to Dunae, much of the controversy surrounding Penny Dreadfuls was in reality caused by class issues in the time period, not by the content (147). Groups attacked the publications as they were a threat to the upper classes. Working men and children were thought to be empowered by reading of lower class heroes and crime (Dunae 147). Much as Sweeney Todd himself is judged by his appearance as a lower class criminal, the story he appears in, is heavily critiqued based on its low form as a Penny Dreadful. If the story were to have been published originally in a form other than a Penny Dreadful, I believe it would be considered a greater piece of literature. Lloyd’s publishing company, like many others at the time was made up of numerous authors who were said to pass stories around, so it is believed to be unclear as to who was the original author of the Sweeney Todd tale (Jackson). Dunae proposes that the quality of writing in â€Å"A String of Pearls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is of higher quality than most Penny Dreadfuls and believes he has traced the original author to be James Malcolm Rymer; a more well-known Penny Dreadful author with significant works such as â€Å"Varney the Vampire† (136). It is not only the writing that makes this story stand out from the rest. While most Penny Dreadfuls are predictable with diffuse and predictable plots (James and Smith xiii), â€Å"A String of Pearls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  takes numerous plot turns that are unexpected and shocking to the reader. More contemporary literary critics have discussed the story in a more positive light. Anglo makes the claim that â€Å"A String of Pearls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  is the best known Penny Dreadful (15) and that the character of Sweeney Todd is the most dreadful and famous villain from any of the tales published in the period (49). There has been one critique of the work that went as far to claim it has offered â€Å"some of the best horror writing ever written† (Jackson) and can easily be seen as the inspiration to later horror works such as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, and Dracula (Jackson). While â€Å"A String of Pearls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  may be gaining some recognition as an inspiration for other works, Mack points to elements of the story that stem from recognized classic literature that aid in pushing the work into a the category itself. Sweeney Todd, as villainous as he may be possesses an immense depth of intricate and confused humanity. His loneliness, regret and fear allow the reader to sympathize for the evil character in times of trouble (Mack 127). Mack claims that this is similar to villains created in Dickens works. The Sweeney Todd story is also inspired by other great works such as the Odyssey (Mack 116), as the story mimics the basic outline of a man returning from sea and falling prey to cannibalistic murder. The connections Mack is able to make to between the Penny Dreadful tale and classic literature allow the story to stand out in plot, influence and writing, all of which attribute it to be a greater work than originally labeled. The original story published by Lloyd in 1847 gained popularity quite quickly and before the final three installments had been printed, George Dibdin Pitt adapted it into a stage play and opened it March 1st 1847 at the Brittania theatre (Weltman 1). Since then, the story has been adapted numerous times for stage, film and literature (Weltman 20). In this way, it has made its way through different classes as it becomes exposed to more people through different mediums. â€Å"A String of Pearls†¦Ã¢â‚¬  has influenced a remarkable amount of literature since its creation (Mack 197). Sweeney Todd characters along with his cannibal pie making accomplice continue to appear in children’s literature to current day, including Terry Pratchett’s Where’s My Cow? Their popularity and horror has spread across the world in an array of works (Hand 141). The story’s survival is only more proof that it deserves the recognition of a great classic within English Literature. The story of â€Å"A String of Pearls. A Romance† brings to light the ways in which a publication’s format and title can affect its success as a piece of literary work. The story’s origin as a serialized Penny Dreadful published in 1846/ 1847 confined its critique to a cheap and immoral tale meant only for the enjoyment of lower class readers. The format along with its title as a romance ignored the tale’s true identity as a great work of gothic literature. Sweeney Todd and Mrs. Lovett’s characters embody horror by dominating the plot with a terror that can seem all too realistic for any reader. Their murderous and cannibalistic narrative overshadows the romance advertised to readers. It is their horrific and suspenseful narrative that has carried through the past two centuries popularizing Sweeney Todd in literary works to this day. The nineteenth century characters’ ability to inspire terror in modern audiences deems this story the right to be called a classic.