Wednesday, August 21, 2019

The Effects Of Globalisation On Burger King

The Effects Of Globalisation On Burger King 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Reason for choosing project topic and organisation This Research and Analysis Project is based on topic 5: The effects of globalisation on Burger King Holdings Inc (referred as Burger King, the company or BK from now onwards). Among the reasons for choosing the topic include: Globalisation is neither a very elegant word nor a very clear concept, but the term has been accepted very quickly on a global scale (Wesseling, 2009). Globalisation reflects business orientation based on the belief that the world is becoming more homogeneous and that the distinctions between national markets are not only fading but for some products, will eventually disappear (Czinkota et al., 2004). Its fast growing impact on the world certainly attracts my attention. The ACCA course I am currently pursuing has provided me with some theoretical knowledge of this topic to analyze a real life company. This assignment will certainly allow me to put my theoretical knowledge into practical experience. By conducting research on an organisation, where BK will be my subject of research it will certainly widen my horizon of knowledge on this topic. Taking into account the information gathering analytical skills like computation, extrapolation and communication for the research which will help in my future career as an accountant, I will certainly benefit from my research on this topic. In any research project, ease of obtaining information is of main concern furthermore with most time and budget constraints. BK was chosen because its annual financial report, press release and other relevant information on the company are easily accessible online at its website Further updates and company activities are also available by just a click away from academic databases and the internet. Another reason for choosing the company because BK is among the most well known fast food restaurants. BK is the second largest fast food hamburger chain in the world. Every day, over 11 million guests visit a BK somewhere in the world (Burger King Holdings Inc., 2010).The tremendous market reach along with various achievements as listed in Appendix 1 as well as the fact that I am a fan of its offerings all compelled me to choose this company. Note: Only financial statement till June 2009 is used in this research as that was the latest annual financial statement published at the point of doing my research. 1.2 Project Objective and Research Question This research project involves the evaluation of the effects of globalisation on an organisation. After much research on this topic, I realised that different people around the people have different views and perception concerning globalisation. From quantitative point of view, globalisation is defined as the intensification of economic, political, social and cultural relations across borders whereas from qualitative point of view, globalisation is defined as a process comprising a number of qualitative transformation, which are represented by technological transformation, the financial transformation, the geographical reallocation of production, the process of commodification, the polarisation of wealth, the subordination of politics to economics and the related decline of the nation state (Talani, 2004). Globalisation process, driven by rapid and largely unrestricted flows of information, ideas, cultural values, capital, goods and services and people lead to a shift towards a more integrated world economy. These processes, promoted by converging market preferences, falling trade barriers, and the integration of national economies is emerging as the norm in a growing range of economic activities, changing economic theory and practices (Jutaliaviciene et al., 2006). Globalisation has resulted in both opportunities and threats in terms of all parties involved such as suppliers, customers and competitors (Burgers et al., 1993; Courtney et al., 2001; Oxelheim et al., 1991). Thus even though there are many ways to examine the effects of globalisation but I believe Michael Porters Five Forces Model ( Barriers to Entry, Supplier Power, Customer Power, Rivalry, and Threat of Substitutes) can give a clearer picture of the industry the company operates in and steps taken by the company to stand out among all the other competitors worldwide. Therefore, the research question can be structured as What is the impact of globalisation on BK in terms of barriers to entry, supplier power, customer power, rivalry, and threat to substitutes using Porters Five Forces Model? 1.3 Overall research approach Porters five forces is a framework for the industry analysis and business strategy development developed by Michael E. Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979 (Porter, 1979). It uses a basic five forces framework that determine the competitive intensity and therefore attractiveness of a market. Attractiveness of a market is based on overall industry profitability whereas an unattractive industry is where overall profitability is driven down by the combination of forces. An industry approaching pure competition would be a very unattractive industry (Porter, 1979; 1980). Porters Five Forces Model consists of 5 fundamental competitive forces: Threat of new entrants contribute to the capacity levels, affect prices and possibly reduce the profitability of existing competitors (Williams et el., 1996). Threat of substitutes exist if there are alternative products with lower prices of better performance parameters for the same purpose (Reklies, 2001). Bargaining power of customer is determined by the size and concentration of customers. Other factors are the extent to which buyers are informed and the concentration or differentiation of the competitors ( Karagiannopoulos, 2005). Bargaining power of supplier attempts to capture pressures that suppliers to the industry can exert on industry profitability. A powerful supplier can raise the companys cost through demanding higher prices for its input or delivering lower quality inputs (Rothaermel, 2008). Rivalry among existing competitors describes how intense could the competition be between existing firm in an industry. Lower returns earned by highly competitive industries due to the higher cost of competition (RapidBI., 2008). Appendix 2 gives more details on the forces and circumstances affecting the strength of each forces. The diagram below should give a better view of how the 5 forces interacts with each other. Rivalry among existing competitor Threat of new entrants Bargaining power of customer Bargaining power of supplier Threat of substitutes Diagram 1: The Five Competitive Forces that shapes strategy (Porter,1979) The effects of globalisation on BK as done with the five forces framework will help me to understand the competitive situation of the company and how competitive advantages might be achieved using the concepts and analytical techniques. As a final note, this model also promotes clear strategic thinking since Porter (1979) argues that business with no clear strategy will have no basis on which to integrate its activities and achieve consistency between its various function and units (The Antidote, 1998). In the end, could lead to reduced profitability and even failure.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Case Study: Patient with Heart Burn

Case Study: Patient with Heart Burn The patient is a 45 year old male with a history of eight weeks complaint of heart burn that worsens with lying down after dinner. The patient states that the pain lasts thirty minutes to two hours, and that it wakes him at night. Patient reports taking Maalox and Rolaids up to five times daily, however these only help for a short time. Medical History No Known Allergies Hypertension for two years Rheumatoid arthritis in hands and feet for one year Social History Patient is married with three children. Patient drinks two beers daily for the past twenty years and smokes one pack per day for twenty years. Current medications Prednisone 20 mg orally daily Diltiazem 240 mg orally daily Piroxicam 30 mg orally daily Multi- vitamin one orally daily Physical examination T. = 99 RR=18 Pulse =77 BP = 127/76 Weight 242 Height 59† ENT EOMI, PERRLA, mild sputum Cardiac – normal S1 and S2 Chest slight dyspnea Abdomen – soft, with mild pain (4 on 1-10 scale, with 10 being worst) to upper quadrant below sternum. Genitourinary deferred Rectal- deferred Extremities arthritic changes to hands Skin normal Neuro AAO times 3, normal DTR Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a condition in which stomach content leaks backward from the stomach into the esophagus. The symptoms are heartburn, nausea, and regurgitation; this causes an inflammation of the esophagus and possibly the larynx. Complications can be esophageal ulcers, Barrett esophagitis, chronic cough, and can lead to infection and inflammation of the lungs. Diagnosis is typically made by symptoms, endoscopy, and esophageal acid tests (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). GERD is caused by a break down in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. There are three main types of treatment that physicians consider when treating reflux disease. The treatment will depend on the severity of the symptoms (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). With any patient suffering from GERD, there are lifestyle changes and dietary changes that are effective in management of the disease (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Lifestyle changes that the patient can do are as follows: Stop smoking if tobacco products are used (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011) Taking antacids (of aluminum hydroxide content) (PubMed, 2012) Avoid food consumption within 2 hours of going to bed (PubMed, 2012) Avoid caffeinated beverages, chocolate, nicotine, alcohol, and peppermint (PubMed). Monitor intake of spicy and acidic foods (PubMed, 2012) Limit the amount of high fatty foods in the diet (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011) Eat 5 to 6 small meals during the day, instead of 3 large meals (PubMed, 2012) Monitor weight, as obesity increases the symptoms of GERD (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011) Elevate the head of the bed using a 6 to 8 inch block or a wedge under the mattress to enhance acid clearance when reclining (PubMed, 2012) Eat slowly and chew food thoroughly to enhance digestion (PubMed, 2012) *Avoid restrictive clothing, lifting heavy objects, straining, working in a bent position, and stooping (PubMed, 2012). * Chewing gum, this increases saliva production and natural acid reduction (PubMed, 2012). The symptoms may be controlled with the medications; however, the medical issue never goes away. Lifestyle changes are helpful in the overall treatment and control (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Diagnosis Diagnosis and treatment consist of a physical examination and history, esophageal motility testing, esophageal acid test, endoscopy (esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy or EGD), and possible biopsy to diagnosis Barrett’s (Ananal, 2012). The esophageal acid test is considered the â€Å"gold standard† for diagnosis (PubMed). Current medications and interactions related to GERD Calcium channel blockers are classifications of medications used to treat hypertension. These drugs can weaken the lower esophageal sphincter, which can cause GERD (Hughes, Lockart, Joyce, 2007) Corticosteroids in increased amounts have been associated with indigestion, heartburn, stomach pain and cramping, vomiting and diarrhea (Ananal, 2012). NSAIDs such as Piroxicam may cause abdominal cramping or severe pain, severe continuous heart burn and nausea. In combination with corticosteroids there is a higher risk of abdominal pain and the risk of stomach bleeding (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Treatment Treatment can include elevation of the upper body when sleeping, diet changes, and avoid certain foods, eating smaller more frequent meals, and stop smoking and alcohol use (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Medical treatment will include antacids taken one hour after meals; Tums and Rolaids are not recommended for regular use due to being a calcium carbonate. Histamine antagonist, such as Zantac, should be taken 30 minutes before bedtime to prevent nocturnal acid breakthrough. Proton pump inhibitors, such as Prilosec, should be taken, one hour before the morning meal. Foam barriers such as Gaviscon, work as a barrier to stomach acids and may be taken as needed for symptom relief, three times daily (Ananal, 2012). Antacids and alginic acid (Gaviscon) are the drugs of choice for quick relief of symptoms. These agents act primarily by rapidly increasing the ph of the gastric refluxate. Alginic acid reacts with sodium bicarbonate in saliva to form sodium alginates. The sodium alginate floats on the top of the gastric contents where it acts as a mechanical barrier, minimizing exposure of the esophagus to refluxate. H2 receptor blockers act by inhibiting histamine stimulation of the gastric parietal cells, thereby suppressing gastric acid secretion. They are most effective in suppressing nocturnal acid secretion. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) strongly inhibit gastric acid secretion. They act by irreversibly inhibiting the H+ K+ adenosine Triphosphatase pump of the parietal cell. By blocking the final common pathway of gastric acid suppression compared with H2 receptor blockers. When prescribed appropriately to patients with severe symptoms or refractory disease, the PPIs are more cost effective bec ause of their high healing and remission rate and the consequent prevention of complications (Brunton, Chabner, Knollman, 2011). Prescriptions #1 DATE__6/12/2014_____ Patient name________ (M/F) AGE__45____ Address____________ Weight__242____ Prilosec 40 mg tablet # 30 Take one tablet by mouth every morning before the morning meal for acid reflux control Refill__1__ signature______________ Generic sub __Yes__ DEA#__________ #2 DATE__6/12/2014_____ Patient name________ (M/F) AGE__45____ Address____________ Weight__242____ Zantac 75 mg tablet # 30 Take one tablet by mouth every night 1 hour before bedtime for acid reflux control Refill__1__ signature______________ Generic sub __Yes__ DEA#__________ #3 DATE__6/12/2014_____ Patient name________ (M/F) AGE__45____ Address____________ Weight__242____ Gaviscon 1 chewable tablet as needed for heartburn relief # 1 bottle Take one tablet by mouth three times daily as needed for relief of breakthrough heartburn Refill__1__ signature______________ Generic sub __Yes__ DEA#__________ References Ananal, B. (2012). Peptic ulcer disease. Retrieved from Brunton, L., Chabner, B., Knollman, B. (2011). Goodman Gilmans:The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (12 ed.). McGraw-Hill. Hughes, J., Lockart, J., Joyce, A. (2007). Do calcium antagonists contribute to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and concomitant noncardiac chest pain? The British Pharmacological Society Journal. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02851.x PubMed. (2012). Lifestyle changes as a treatment of gastroesophgeal reflux disease:A survey of general practitioners. Retrieved from PubMed. (n.d.). Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Retrieved from PubMed health: Identification of Didanosine | Results Identification of Didanosine | Results DISCUSSION The procured sample of didanosine was tested for its identification. The drug sample showed compliance with the data given in B.P. and Clarkes which reflects its quality and purity. Quality and purity of sample was also confirmed by the manufacturer. The lipids such as soyalecithin and cholesterol and all other excipients provided by the supplier confirmed by their identification test official in USP 24, IP and EP. All the excipients showed results in compliance with standard specifications. STANDARD CALIBRATION CURVE OF DIDANOSINE From the scanning of drug in 7.4 pH phosphate buffer was concluded that the drug had ÃŽ »max of 249 nm. From the standard calibration curve of drug, it was concluded that drug obeys Beer-Lamberts law in concentration range of 0-20mcg/mL. R2 = 0.9995 Correlation coefficient values indicated the linear correlation between concentration and absorbance. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LIPOSOMES Among the various methods thin film hydration method is widely used on a laboratory scale. In this method the lipids are casted as stacks of film from their organic solution using flash rotary evaporator under reduced pressure and then the film is dispersed in an aqueous medium. This method yields the liposomes with a heterogeneous size distribution. Also the liposomes that are formed are multilamellar in nature with some unilamellar vesicles. (Vyas and Khar, 2002). Venkataram et al., 1990 have used PC to prepare liposomes in a drug to lipid ratio of 1: 10. The temperature during preparation has been kept 40à ¯Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ °C as the glass transition temperature of PC is very low. The drug entrapment into the liposomes depends mainly on Drug: Lipid ratio. In this study, the cholesterol and PC are selected as lipids in combination on basis of percent drug entrapped and rigidity (stability). S.Vemuri et al are stated that, cholesterol improves the fluidity of the bilayer membrane, reduces the permeability of water soluble molecules throught the membrane, and improve the stability of bilayer membrane in the presence of biological fluids such as blood/plasma. The hydration characteristic of lipid film was studied for different batches of liposomes and then liposomes were evaluated for % drug entrapment. From results of % drug entrapped of different batches of liposomes that were prepared and stability of liposomes under different temperature condition it was observed that as the percentage of cholesterol was increased there was subsequent increase in the stability and rigidity of liposomes but at the same time percentage drug entrapment reduced, Due to reduction in phosphatydilcholine. Formulation F4 containing 70% of PC and 30% cholesterol showed maximum drug entrapment (29.41%) with satisfactory stability and rigidity i.e. showed spherical shape with only 1.86% of drug leaching at 25 after 30 days. However, when PC was further increased to 80% keeping cholesterol to 20% there was increase in % drug entrapment but simultaneous decrease in stability and rigidity. The shape was lost and drug leaching was more i.e.10.25%. The data was also treated statistically by using one way analysis (ANOVA) and found to be satisfactory significant difference (P PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF DIDANOSINE PROLIPOSOMES The proliposomes of Didanosine were prepared by powder thin film hydration (New, 1990). Here modified rotary evaporator unit was used as described by Lee et al., 1999. Different carriers like lactose, sodium chloride and lactose beads were used for preparation of proliposomes. Were hydrated with distilled water and the liposomes was analysed for % drug entrapped for different batches of proliposomes derived liposomes were as shown in the table 5.3. The Lipid: Carrier ratio was kept 1: 10 as reported by Song et al., 2002. The proliposomes of lactose were quite free flowing compared to the lactose that was used to prepare them and lactose proliposomes showed highest % drug entrapment (29.17). They were less sticky. Also as the amount of lipid i.e. lecithin was increased the proliposomes powder was found to be very sticky. This is because the lipid is sticky at room temperature. In case of sodium chloride the carrier was very free flowing but the proliposomes powder was very sticky compared to that made with either lactose or sorbitol. The particle size of the liposomes formed in sodium chloride and lactose beads was also greater than that formed with lactose. Here the carrier is non porous so majority of the lipid has to be deposited over the on the surface of the carrier, thereby maximizing the possibility of agglomeration and also because sodium chloride is hygroscopic. So it can be said that such nonporous carriers are suitable only for high melting lipids. The results are in accordance with those observed by Payne et al. As the amount of lipid was increased in case of sodium chloride the proliposomes were found to be extremely sticky because they tend to agglomerate (Payne et al., 1986a). The entrapment of the proliposomes made by using sodium chloride as a carrier was very low compared to that of either lactose or lactose beads because of the effect of the monovalent cation Na+. Sodium ion has the effect of increasing the release of cyclosporine from the liposome hence it decreases the entrapment of drug in the liposomes (Al-Angary et al., 1995). The proliposomes of lactose beads were found to be very free flowing just like the lactose beads from which the proliposomes were prepared but the surface area available for coating less compared to lactose powder and sodium chloride so film formed is thick so it yields multilammelar liposomes. Based on the above results the carrier was finalized. In subsequent experiments Lactose was used as a carrier and the formulation was optimized by a 32 factorial design. The effect of the two independent variables viz. Drug: Lipid ratio and Lipid: Carrier ratio was studied on dependant variables like entrapment and mean particle size. All other processing factors like vacuum applied, speed of rotation of round bottom flask; temperature, amount of surfactant etc were kept constant. OPTIMIZATION OF PROLIPOSOMES A prior knowledge and understanding of the process and the process variables under investigation are necessary for achieving a more realistic model. Based on the results of the preliminary experiments, drug: lipid ratio was found to be a major variable in determining PDE and Lipid: carrier ratio in determining the PMD. Hence, these variables were selected to find the optimized condition for higher PDE and PMD using 32 factorial design. By using 32 factorial designs, 9 batches of didanosine liposomes were prepared varying the two independent variables at three levels as recorded in the table. The prepared batches were evaluated for % drug entrapment (PDE) and mean particle size, which were taken as dependent variables and the results were recorded in the table A substantial high drug entrapment was achieved in liposomes of variable X1 (drug: Lipid = 1:15) and X2 (Lipid: Carrier = 1:15). EVALUATION STUDIES OF DIDANOSINE PROLIPOSOMES A) Microscopy of proliposome The microscopy of proliposomes revealed that the surface was smooth due to the coating of the lipid and some of the particles were agglomerated. The pictures of proliposomes are as shown in Figure. After hydration with deionized water a series of time-lapse photographs of proliposome hydration are as shown below in Figure. Here the formation of liposomes form proliposomes is shown. The results indicate that the process of dissolution/disintegration may occur by a progressive hydration of the lipid surface of the proliposome, taking the form of liposomes ‘budding off’ from the central core of the proliposome until both hydration of the lipid and dissolution of the carrier is complete. Although only an imitation of the process of proliposome hydration (due to absence of hand shaking to aid proliposome dispersion), this approach was thought to offer a reasonable indication of the process (Payne et al., 1986b). Finally the liposomes are formed that are multilamellar with a heterogeneous size distribution. The photographs reveal the multilamellar nature (Figure). Also the Maltice crosses shown in Figure indicate that the vesicles are multilamellar in nature. Also there are many unilamellar vesicles. B) Scanning electron micrographs. The scanning electron micrographs of carriers and optimized batch of proliposomes made with different carriers were taken and are as shown in the Figure. From the SEM pictures it is evident that after coating the surface becomes somewhat smooth and the surface defects are no more visible and a thick coating is also seen in proliposomes compared to the carrier alone. After coating of lipid on the surface the particles looks quite opaque and smooth compared to the carrier. EVALUATION STUDIES OF PROLIPOSOME DERIVED LIPOSOMES A) % Drug entrapped By using 32 factorial designs, 9 batches of didanosine liposomes were prepared varying the two independent variables. Various methods have been reported for determination of drug content in liposomes that involve separation of free drug from liposomes either by centrifugation or by dialysis or by sephadex column. Here the separation was affected by sephadex G25 column as reported by Guo et al., 2001. Here the PDE was calculated from the difference between the initial drug added and the drug detected after separation of the free drug. The results of various batches are as shown in the table. It was found that the % drug entrapped was highest when the Drug: Lipid ratio was highest. Also the Lipid: Carrier ratio was found to affect the entrapment of the drug into the liposomes. It was found that the highest % entrapment for all three levels of X2 was obtained at +1 level of X1 that is 21.37% at –1 level, 26.73% at 0 level and 30.89% at +1 level of X2. Graphical presentation figure shows the effect of the independent variable (drug: lipid ratio) on % drug entrapped. The results indicate that as the drug to lipid ratio increases the entrapment of the drug in the liposomes increases, as didanosine is a hydrophilic drug, which finds place within the core. B) Particle size analysis Particle size analysis results of various batches of proliposome derived liposomes are as shown in the table. The results are expressed as particle mean diameter. The particle size of the liposomes decreases as the amount of the carrier increases because there is a greater surface area available for thin lipid film formation which gives rise to a small particle size compared to a thick film that is formed when the amount of carrier is decreased (Hwang et al., 1997). The graph (figure) represents the relationship between lipid: carrier ratio on mean particle size. Mean particle size decreases as the lipid: carrier ratio increases because as the surface area increases thin film formation occurs that gives rise to smaller particle size. C) Stability Studies The optimized formulation was subjected to stability studies at 40C, 250C, 450C for 60 days. They were evaluated for physical appearance, entrapment efficiency, drug content etc. All the results obtained are within the limits and no major changes were identified physically.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Eugene ONeills Long Days Journey into Night Essay -- Long Days Jou

Eugene O'Neill's "Long Day's Journey into Night" As the fog descends around the Tyrone’s summer home, another fog falls on the family within. This fog is that of substance abuse, in which each of the four main characters of Eugene O’Neill’s play, Long Day’s Journey into Night face by the end of Act IV. Long Day's Journey into Night is a metaphoric representation of the path from normalcy to demise by showing the general effects of substance abuse on human psychology and family dysfunctions through the characters Mary, Jamie, Edmund and Tyrone. Mary Tyrone makes the transition most clearly throughout the entire play. In Act I, her hands move restlessly, and she seems to be quite nervous. When she appears in Act II â€Å"one notices no change except that she appears to be less nervous, †¦ but then one becomes aware that her eyes are brighter and there is a peculiar detachment in her voice and manner† (O’Neill 58). These subtle signs of her relapse back to chemical dependency continue until the final scene, where she is most obviously under the influences of a chemical substance. The morphine seems to make her reminiscent of the past. In Act III, she talked about her two childhood dreams of becoming a concert pianist or a nun. By Act IV, she has dragged her old wedding dress from the attic and attempted to play the piano again. This presents a psychological reasoning for her relapses. She considers herself to be growing old and ugly, and often refers to the how she was at one time young and beautiful. †Å"To her, the ugliness of the hands is the ugliness of what she has become over the last twenty-five years, which is why she uses the pain of the rheumatism in them as her reason for the morphine† (Chabrowe 181). Thus, it can be correlated that at one time she used the morphine to escape pain, and when she realized that it made her feel youthful again she became addicted. Her failure to desist is also connected with her interfamily relationships. When she was accused of relapsing she said, â€Å"It would serve all of you right if it was true† (O’Neill 47)! This suggests that she is seeking justification to continue her drug addiction by using her family’s suspicions as a reason to relapse (Bloom 163). Not only are her actions influenced by her family, but they also influence the men, namely Edmund. He is quite aware of his diminishing health, and suspects that he ... ...with a sense of what the future holds for the Tyrone family, the book tends to be repetitive. Thus, one can assume that the play marks one day, one relapse for Mary, one trip for Jamie to the whorehouse, one more drink Edmund takes to forget the past, and one more drink that Tyrone takes to help himself cope. Yet, it will not be the first, or the last. It will be just one more. Night will journey into morning and it will all happen again. Such is tragedy. Works Cited American Lung Association. â€Å"Who Get’s It.† Tuberculosis (TB.) On-line. Internet. 1 March 2001. Available: <a href=""> Chabrowe, Leonard. â€Å"Rituals and Pathos: The Theatre of O’Neill.† Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Bloom, Steven F. â€Å"Empty Bottles, Empty Dreams: O’Neill’s Use of Drinking and Alcoholism in Long Day’s Journey Into Night.† Critical Essays on Eugene O’Neill. 1984 ed. Collins, R. Lorraine, Kenneth E. Leonard, and John S. Searles. Alcohol and the Family. New York, London: The Guilford Press, 1974. Hinden, Michael. Long Day’s Journey into Night: Native Eloquence. Boston: Twane Publishers, 1990.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Stirrups :: Essays Papers

Stirrups The American Heritage Dictionary (3rd edition) defines a stirrup as "a loop or ring hung from either side of a horse's saddle to support the rider's foot" (The American Heritage Dictionary 799). Stirrups were invented by the Chinese in the year 477 A.D., and by the early Middle Ages the countries of Japan, India and Korea seem to have adopted its use. Stirrups became known in Persia, Byzantium and France in the 7th or early 8th century A.D.. Before stirrups were invented, riders had to use "a wooden stool or [they leaped] directly on to the horse's back" (Gans 1). Stirrups provided riders with much greater stability while on horseback especially during battles with lances and swords. A number of historians believed that the invention of the stirrups created the rise of feudalism. This belief caused what is called the great stirrup controversy still going on up to the present day. There has been several theories proposed pertaining to this controversy. For example, Heinrich Brunner in 1887 said that "feudalism was a wide effect of the development of mounted shock warfare by the Franks" (Gans 1). Brunner's stance of the controversy is that he believes that the rise of feudalism was not caused by the introduction of the stirrup but was caused by the Frankish army's envy of the fighting ability of the Moslem cavalry. As a result, the Frankish army became primarily a cavalry army. Before that time, the Frankish army used to fight on foot using a long handled ax called a francisca. Heinrich Brunner proposes that the Frankish army transformed itself from an infantry force to a mounted cavalry between 732 A.D. to 891 A.D. in an article he published called "Kni ghts' Service and the Origins of Feudalism" (Gans 1). The American Heritage Dictionary (3rd edition) defines cavalry as "troops trained to fight on horseback or in light armored vehicles" and feudalism as "a political and economic system of medieval Europe by which a landowner granted land to a vassal in exchange for homage and military service" (The American Heritage Dictionary 141, 312). Lynn White Jr. in 1962 said that both feudalism and cavalry was caused by the introduction of the stirrup. White agrees with Brunner's argument that "it was true that feudalism arose out of military necessity but that Brunner's details were wrong" (Gans 1).

The Families of Flowering Plants :: essays research papers

Asphodelaceae (Aloe Family) CLASSIFICATION Dahlgren et al. (1985) divided the Monocotyledons into several superorders of which the Liliiflorae is the largest. The order Asparagales is the largest of the five orders within Liliiflorea. One of the families within Asparagales recognized by Dahlgren and his co-workers was Asphodelaceae (Chase et al. (2000). Asphodelaceae consists of the sub-families, the Asphodeloideae and the Alooideae. The Alooideae consists of six genera of which Aloe is the largest. The sub-family Alooideae are noted for their spectacular secondary growth, a characteristic used to define the Alooideae as monophyletic. On the other hand, some workers within the taxa have considered the above two subfamilies were for sometime, considered to be separate families, the Asphodelaceae and Alooideae (Dagne and Yenesaw 1994). Determining the proper phylogeny was difficult because some authors have argued that Aspodeloideae is not a monophyletic group. Also, the Aspodeloideae are more varied and share a great deal of m orphological similarities between other groups (Chase et al. 2000). The latest generation of chemical information on species belonging to these two groups is believed to reveal the relationships among the various taxa and to assist in establishing taxonomic classifications at various levels (Dagne and Yenesaw 1994). However, there is still not strong enough evidence suggesting both sub-families should not be included in a single family, the Asphodelaceae (Bisrata 2000). MORPHOLOGY Asphodelaceae is a distinct family from other liliod monocot groups by a combination of several morphological and reproductive features: simultaneous microsporogensis, atypical ovular structure, lacking steroidal saponins, producing seeds with arils, and the general presence of anthraquinones. Basic morphological features of genera within the Asphodelaceae consist of mostly herbs, shrubs, and sometimes arborescent, which grows into woody forms with trunks that can grow up to several meters high. The leaves are arrangement is alternate, spiral or 2-ranked that usually form rosettes at base or ends of the branches. The leaves are often thick and succulent with parallel venation. The succulent aloes vary in size and morphology from the dwarf rosettes (Adams et al. 2000). Vascular bundles are arranged in rings around mucilaginous parenchyma tissue, the bundles have parenchymatous aloin cells in inner bundle sheath near the phloem poles. The association of aloin cells and central gelatino us zones are synapomorphic for species with Alooideae (Judd et al. 1999). The perianth is usually bisexual and showy, with 6 distinct to strongly connate, non-spotted tepals. Reproductive flower parts have 6 distinct stamens and 3 connate carpels and a superior ovary that contain nectaries in septa.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Life & experienced

My life has experienced its fair share if twists and turns. If there is one thing that I have learnt from life, it is preparing to expect the unexpected. I always try to keep an open mind towards situations and it helps me to stay unruffled during adversity.I maintain a positive outlook towards life even during hardships, which helps me focus on things that need to be done in the present rather than worrying about the past. It has also helped face failure with optimism and given me confidence that anything is possible if adequate time and effort are put in.I enjoy reading books and feel that it is extremely enlightening and entertaining at the same time. I feel that good books can talk to people and change lives. I have read quite a few good books that have greatly influenced me and made who I am today.I enjoy playing outdoor sports and feel that it a great way to exert pent-up energy and refresh the mind. A good game has the power to take the mind off negative thoughts. I believe it helps to lead a healthy lifestyle since it acts as adequate exercise to the body and soul. It is also an excellent way to learn sportsmanship and make new friends.I feel college education is absolutely essential to gather knowledge, which would otherwise take years of experience. However, I do understand there is no substitute for real world experience. But, I just feel that a college degree would give a head start towards launching a successful career.I also hope that college life would expose me a world of new possibilities and people that would made life more interesting. I have been quite a disciplined and dedicated student in school, which is reflected by grades and clean record. I also stick to strong moral values, as a result of my healthy upbringing and good friends.I am looking forward to learning new things from professors and academic experts, enabling me to be a more enlightened person. I like making new friends by mingling with my fellow students and getting to know th eir experiences and thoughts on life.I feel that college is the best place to make human connections that last for a lifetime, since we reach a mature state of mind and are also free from the greed that haunts the professional world. I am good in coordinating charity events and can help out in organizing any event. I am very open to learning and quite good in grasping things quickly. I believe that I can I contribute to your student community in more ways than one by being an honest, unbiased, helpful person.I seek joy by helping other people, especially the ones that desperately need help. It makes my heart ache to see people in our very own country suffer without food and a proper place to stay. I am willing to do whatever it takes to revive this situation.However, I feel that I have to first empower myself with the necessary tools to accomplish this noble cause. I believe that I have to start with higher education which is the one of the key steps. Dedication and persistence in h ealthy doses measure are also equally important to reach this goal.I am very patient person and would like help out elderly people are abandoned by their kids. I feel that everyone deserves someone to care for them and listen to them. I wish to visit elderly rest homes and interact with senior citizens. I wish get their perspective on current affairs and help them in little ways that matter.I wish to spend time with time with them on a regular basis and offer such elderly homes my free services. If I could help out a few elderly people, it would make me feel extremely proud and contented.I gone through many trails and tribulations in my life so far and all of them have only made me a stronger person. Even when I failed in my tests, I never gave up hope and have always been ready to face tough situations. I feel this quality of mine helps me to keep moving forward in life. I would have to mention my math teacher who helped me a lot to come out of failure and taste success.I will alwa ys be grateful to her and I made decision to be helpful to other people. I have also helped a lot of my friends during personal crisis and family emergencies. I try not pass judgments and am very open-minded.This has helped me gain the trust of my friends and prompted them to share their personal problems with me. It has also made me gain insight into human pain and uncover ways to deal with it. This has helped to understand that that every wound will heal with time.I see myself as a very active and sociable person. I have a penchant for doing social work and fighting for good causes. I would like to participate in events that deal with cleansing the environment and taking a new fresh look at humanitarian issues.I believe it is my duty as a human being to exhibit empathy and devote time to improve the world that I live. Nothing in the world would be give me more pride and joy than knowing that I have made a difference in another person’s life.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Lewins Model of Organisational Change Essay

Example of repositioning Another current example is McDonalds who has lost touch with consumers and global changing needs of consumers (health issue) and are trying to reposition themselves capitalising on their competencies like store location and convenience to update their brand offerings. A brand’s market share and profitability may be strengthened by repositioning. Repositioning can be accomplished by: – physically changing the product – changing the price – changing distribution – changing image through promotional efforts – aiming product at a different target market Repositioning When a product or brand’s position creates an unfavorable circumstance, the company’s marketing team may seek to reposition it. Repositioning is the process of changing consumer perceptions of a brand relative to competitors. It involves a sweeping process that must be implemented at the strategic level, thereby affecting every part of the company. It cannot simply be a marketing ploy, which might arouse the suspicions of consumers. Repositioning is the process of changing consumer perceptions of a brand relative to competitors. In the positioning map shown in Figure 5.9, Nissan did not have an advantage with regard to either safety or speed. The marketing department, after seeing the results, might try to reposition Nissan on the variable of safety. Repositioning would involve improvements in the safety features of the automobile (in the design and manufacturing departments), a promotional campaign to inform consumers of these changes (marketing), public relations releases announcing the results of new safety tests when they favor the company, and an overall company focus on safety. Such a strategy includes informing all employees about the new approach and rewarding those who suggest innovations and improvements related to safety of the automobiles.  If successful, a future positioning map would show Nissan moving up on perceptions of safety. The Hyundai example from earlier in this chapter serves as an example of effective repositioning. The company moved from perceptions of being cheap and low quality to a new position based on improved consumer perceptions of quality. Product re-positioning Sometimes during its existence, a company may notice that its products’ image is outdated, or can be improved. Then the company starts re-positioning its products in customer’s perception. Re-positioning consists in identifying a new, unoccupied market position and promoting the product based on the new criteria. Re-positioning is suitable for minimizing company’s own products’ competition. The business is trying to make a difference in the way the consumers perceive the similar products they furnish. Re-positioning requires a sustained promotional campaign and bring forward many risks.