Wednesday, July 31, 2019
ICFAI UNIVERSITY, DEHRADUN NAME: KEDAR SINGH TOMAR IUD No: 0901201057 IBSÃ No: 09BS0001057 Course Name: MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS Course Code: SLEC501 Faculty Name: DR. ANIRVINNA C. Date of Submission: 08TH SEPTEMBER 2009 Topic of the Assignment: DOMINANT PRICE LEADERSHIP Student SignatureÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Faculty Signature DOMINANT PRICE LEADERSHIP Dominant price leadership exists when a. one firm drives the others out of the market. b. the dominant firm decides how much each of its competitors can sell. c. he dominant firm establishes the price at the quantity where its MR = MC, and permits all other firms to sell all they want to sell at that price. d. the dominant firm charges the lowest price in the industry. PRICE LEADER Marketing: Powerful firm whose prices are likely to be imitated by other firms in the same market. Price leaders usually are also the market leaders. DOMINANT LEADERSHIP Leadership characterized by a clear line of authority that gives the leader the power of delegation, and the power to control the subordinates' level of participation in decision making process.It is the most common form of leadership. PRICE LEADERSHIP Situation in which a market leader sets the price of a product or service, and competitors feel compelled to match that price. Oligopoly Models Ã¢â¬Å"Price LeadershipÃ¢â¬ The firms in the Oligopolistic industry without any formal agreement accept the price set by the leading firm in the industry and move their prices in line with the prices of the leader firm. Price Leadership can be in any of the forms; Price Leadership by a Dominant firm Barometric Price Leadership Aggressive or Exploitative Price Leadership The structure of the DTH industry in India can be categorized as an Ã¢â¬Å"Olig opolyÃ¢â¬ .An oligopoly is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists). An oligopoly is a market dominated by a few large suppliers. The degree of market concentration is very high. Firms within an oligopoly produce branded products and there are also barriers to entry. Key characteristics of Ã¢â¬Å"OligopolyÃ¢â¬ are following : Ã¢â¬ ¢ Few larger supplier dominates the market Ã¢â¬ ¢ Interdependence between firms Ã¢â¬ ¢ Each firm produces branded products Ã¢â¬ ¢ Significant entry barriers into the market in the long run which allows firms to make supernormal profits Ã¢â¬ ¢ Each oligopolist is aware of he actions of the others. What is DTH? DTH stands for Direct-To-Home television. DTH is defined as the reception of satellite programmes with a personal dish in an individual home. DTH does away with the need for the local cable operator and puts the broadcaster directly in touch with the consumer. Only cable operators c an receive satellite programmes and they then distribute them to individual homes. Dishtv, subsidary of the biggest media conglomerate Ã¢â¬â Zee group, reached a significant milestone of crossing 4. Million subscriber mark and thus consolidating its leadership position as the largest and most innovative DTH Company in India. Dishtv is the leader in DTH sector with a market share of more than 53 per cent of the total subscriber base of 8 million. DishtvÃ¢â¬â¢s footprint covers 5400 towns across India bringing smiles to 23 million Indians. Reliance communications subsidiary, Big TV, crossed one million subscriber mark within 90 days of launch. Big DTH is growing exponentially and is now next to Dish TV and Tata Sky with its 15 per cent market share.Launched in August this year, BIG TV is available at over one lakh retail outlets across 6,500 towns along with over 2,000 exclusive Reliance branded stores. Dishtv has consistently set the benchmarks for the Indian DTH industry and re defined the business through marketing innovations, introduction of new generation valueadded services and the highest standard of customer delivery. Today, Dishtv offers its subscribers choice and superior value for money with a range of innovative value-added services backed by excellent customer service.The Four Million milestone is not just a significant one for Dishtv but also symbolizes the successful growth of the Indian DTH industry. Dishtv has always been a forerunner in bringing new marketing innovations and going forward the company will initiate certain steps to rationalize the package offerings which may include charging of service tax etc. directly from the subscriber. Adding to its array of interactive value added service, dishtv launched the innovative Interactive Banking Service Ã¢â¬Å"ICICI ACTIVEÃ¢â¬ in association with ICICI Bank.This service enables Dish TV viewers to access information on ICICI Bank products and services, from the convenience of their homes. To celebrate the festive spirit of Diwali, Dishtv launched Ã¢â¬Å"BHAKTI ACTIVEÃ¢â¬ . Dishtv subscribers can now get Live Gurbani from Bangla Sahib and Nanded Sahib, Aarti of Sai Baba from Shirdi & Ganesh Aarti from Siddhi Vinayak, Mumbai, Aarti from Tirupati Balaji, Live Ganga Aarti from Haridwar and Bhasm Aarti of Mahakaal from Ujjain. Dishtv customers can now get blessed at the press of a button in the comfort of their home 24X7.Dishtv added 3 new channels on its platform. This addition will further enhance DishtvÃ¢â¬â¢s strong bouquet of general entertainment, news, sports and regional channel offering to its discerning subscribers. The company had added a record 5. 29 Lakh subscribers during the Second Quarter of fiscal 2009 (July Ã¢â¬â September), breaking all its previous achievements. DishtvÃ¢â¬â¢s footprint covers 6500 towns across India and it reaches into far flung markets which enable building of a diverse subscriber base across consumer segments. STRENGHTS Pio neer and leader of DTH services in India ? First mover advantage One year lead over nearest competitor ? ~ 3-year lead over others ? Largest subscriber base ~ 5. 0 mn (Mar-09) ? Backed by Zee Group IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest Media group Full-service business model ? Basic subscription packs ? Value added services ? Bandwidth ? Teleport services Leveraging on first mover advantage backed by strong industry understanding ? Diversified content offering ? 240 channels + Services ? Content tie-ups at fixed rates ? State-of-the-art infrastructure ? Large distribution network ? Aggressive subscriber acquisition strategy to ensure continued market leadership DTH INDUSTRY MARKET SHARE 2008 | | | |Brand |Promoter |Market Share | | | | | |Dish TV |Zee group |53% | | | | | |TataSky |Tata Sons & Star TV |30% | | | | | |Big TV |Anil Dhirubhai Abani Group |15% | | | | | |Others (Sun Direct, AirTel Digital |Sun by SUN TV |2% | |TV ) |AirTel by Bharati telemedia | | | | | | Another way of confirmi ng it is by using the index Herfindahl.The Herfindahl index, also known as HERFINDAHL-HIRSCHMAN INDEX or HHI, is a measure of the size of firms in relationship to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them. HHI s defined as the sum of the squares of the market shares of 50 largest firms (or summed over all the firms if there are fewer than 50) within the industry, when the market shares are expressed as percentages; the result is proportional to the average market share, weighted by market share. The higher the HHI Index the more oligopolistic is the industry In mathematical term it is defined as following : n H = ? si2 i=1 Where si is the market share of firm i in the market, and n is the number of firms.In the case of Indian DTH Industry the HHI index can be computed by squaring the market share of each player and adding them i. e. H = 532 + 302 + 152 + 22 H = 85399 Since this value of H is petty high it indicates that the market is oligopolistic. SUN TV NETWORK It is No 1 media company in South Asia and Asia Pacific Region based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Established in 1993, it offers a plethora of television channels in 4 languages covering the whole of southern India. It was the first fully privately owned Tamil channel in India when it emerged in 1993. Its serials and soaps have generated the maximum TRP for viewership all over India, making it the most popular network of channels in India.All its channels occupy the top spots in their respective languages. Sun TV, in Tamil is the Network's flagship and most popular channel. Being the premier channel, Sun TV is often used to refer cable tv in general or to the Sun TV Network in general. Sun TV and its sister channels have a dominating share of viewership in Tamil Nadu. Its cable arm, SCV is cable distribution and Sun Direct is the dominating DTH (direct-to-home) player in the state. Its radio network Suryan has a lionÃ¢â¬â¢s share of listenership; its magazine Kungumum a nd newspaper Dinakaran are leaders Although its main presence is in Tamil, it has channels in other languages also. Channel |Type | |Sun TV |Tamil Entertainment Channel | |Sun Music |Tamil Music Channel | |Sun News |Tamil News Channel | |KANNADA | |CHANNEL |TYPE | |Udaya TV |Kannada Entertainment Channel | |Udaya Movies |Kannada Movie Channel | |U 2 |Kannada Music Channel | |TELUGU | |CHANNEL |TYPE | |Gemini TV |Telugu Entertainment Channel | |Gemini Music |Telugu Music Channel | |Gemini News |Telugu News Channel | MALAYALAM | |CHANNEL |TYPE | |Surya TV |Malayalam Entertainment Channel | |Kiran TV |Malayalam Music Channel | |Kochu TV |Malayalam Kids Channel | |Chiri Thirai |Malayalam Comedy Channel(DTH) | FM RADIO STATIONS Sun TV Network has many FM radio stations based in India |Tamil FM Stations | |Radio Station |Area |Frequency | | |Suryan FM |Chennai |93. Ã MHz | | |Malayalam FM Stations | |Radio Station |Area |Frequency | | |S FM |Thiruvananthapuram |93. 5Ã MHz | | |Telugu FM Station | |Radio Station |Area |Frequency | | |S FM |Vishakapatnam |93. 5Ã MHz | | |Kannada FM Station | |Radio Station |Area |Frequency | | |S FM |Bangalore |93. Ã MHz | | |Hindi / Other Language FM Station | |Radio Station |Area |Frequency | | |Red FM |New Delhi |93. 5Ã MHz | | |Red FM |Mumbai |93. 5Ã MHz | | |Red FM |Kolkatta |93. 5Ã MHz | | PRINT MEDIA TAMIL NEWSPAPERS Dinakaran Ã¢â¬â (Daily Morning Newspaper) Tamil Murasu Ã¢â¬â (Daily Evening Newspaper) WEEKLY TAMIL MAGAZINE Kungumum Mutharam Because of the strong presence of SUN TV in every field whether its print media, TV, Radio and other close competitior in South India it is a clear market leader over there.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The US paint industry is divided into three broad segments: architectural coatings, original equipment manufacturing (OEM) coatings, and special-purpose lacquers. The paint industry is a maturing industry. In 2004, sales were estimated to be slightly over $16billion and an average growth of 1-2% per year. Architectural Paint Coatings Industry The industry estimates that architectural coatings and sundries (brushes, paint removers, thinners, etc. ) created sales of $12 billion in 2004. The architectural paint coatings segment is also considered to be projected between the 1-2% increase per year. The demand level for this segment is reflected by the level of home improvements and redecorating, the sales of new and existing homes, commercial and industrial construction. Competition Competition within this segment has been a result of slow sales growth and new governemtn regulations. The number of competitors has decreased by 40%; however, major competitors with low prices have come into place such as Sherwin-Williams and others who account for 60% of sales within the segment. They market paint under their own names as well as for private retailers. Architectural Sales Breakdown and Consumer Purchase Behavior About 50% of architectural sales are sold under private controlled brands such as Sears and Wal-Mart, 36% of sales are sold in specialty paint stores, and 14% are sold in hardware and lumberyards. There are three types of buyers of architectural paint which account for percent of total sales: Ã¢â¬Å"Do It YourselfersÃ¢â¬ who account for 50%, professional painters who account for 25% and contractor/government sales who account for 25%. Home Improvement Research indicated that the Ã¢â¬Å"Do It YourselfersÃ¢â¬ have increased the product line carried by retail outlets and spend on average $74. 0 per purchase on architectural paints and $12 on sundries. JanMar Coatings, Inc. Company JanMar, Inc. is a privately held corporation that produces and markets architectural paint under the JanMar brand name. They also sell sundries and operate OEM coatings. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s architectural coatings and product sales totaled to b e $12 million and $1. 14 million in net profit before taxes in 2004. Dollar sales have increased at 4% on average for year for the past decade. The company distributes in 200 independent paint sores, lumberyards, and hardware outlets. They service 50 counties in the Dallas Fort Worth Area and Non-Dallas Fort Worth Area. Of their outlet sales, 40% is based in the 11 counties within the Dallas-Fort Worth area while the remaining outlets are in the surrounded non-Dallas Forth Worth area. Of the industry findings, 70% of sales in the Dallas Fort Worth area are to professional painters who account for 25% total sales while 70% of sales in the Non Dallas Fort Worth area are to Ã¢â¬Å"Do it YourselfersÃ¢â¬ who account for the 50% of total sales. (See exhibit 1. 1). JanMar Coatings, Inc. Company Current Situation. Competition has accelerated in recent years at the retail level and JanMar Coatings, Inc. is the highest priced paint in their service area. Therefore, JanMar, Inc. is in need of how and where to deploy corporate marketing efforts among the various architectural paint coatings markets in the southwest United States area in a cost effective way to increase market share, revenue, and awareness. Four Proposed Tactical Strategies Given by the Vice Presidents Among the four proposed tactical pans from the different vice presidents at JanMar Coatings, Inc. the solution to the problem is the Vice President of Sales strategy of increasing the sales force and hereÃ¢â¬â¢s why: 1) Increasing the advertising budget through television could have a positive effect because of the current 25% awareness to consumers who purchase paint. However, research shows that consumers choose a store location before choosing the brand and 70% of the consumers reached through advertis ing are not buying paint. The advertising budget is already 3% of sales, so in 2004, the advertising budget was $360,000 which is reasonable for selling paint. To efficiently create awareness, JanMar would need to produce a cooperate ad with a retail outlet to get the buyer in the store. They would also need to increase sales by 8. 3% or $1 million to cover the cost of increase in advertising. (See appendix 1. 2). 2) To make a price cut of 20% would be unreasonable considering the costs of JanMar are unlikely to go down. Cutting price by 20% with the same variable costs would bring their contribution margin down to 19%. To get the same net contribution of $4. million using their current new contribution margin, they will have to generate $22,105,264. 16 in sales which is far above their past sales of $12 million and creating more volume to increase sales at this lower cost is not feasible which just one manufacturer in the Dallas Fort Worth area. (exhibit 1. 3) JanMar needs to focus not on cutting prices but positioning themselves differently from competitors as a superior quality and service company since they are a privately owned, focuse d just in the market of southwest United States. ) Increasing the sales force could have a positive effect if the sales representative is assigned to the non Dallas Fort Worth area since account penetration there is only 16% and focusing on the Ã¢â¬Å"Do it YourselfersÃ¢â¬ because of the amount of sales they accumulate in that area. The amount of sales revenue needed to cover the cost of the one added sales representative of $60,000 base salary is $171,428. (See Appendix 1. 4) This amount of sales needed to incur this cost will be easy to achieve since the sales representative will be focusing on sales in the new area. ) JanMar has continuously controlled their 35% margin and costs even with added research and development. However, there are more competitors on the rise at big retail outlets such as Sears and Wal-Mart that the Ã¢â¬Å"Do it YourselfersÃ¢â¬ will fall for if not guided properly. Therefore even though JanMar will be profitable if they keep everything the same as how it is with controlling costs and guarding the mar gin, they still cannot predict the future and there is growth within the marketing of 1-2%. Recommendation The problem that lies at hand is that there have only been five added accounts in the past five years. The account penetration in the Non-Dallas Forth Worth area is only 16%. With an added sales representative reaching out to the Non-Dallas Forth Worth area where half the sales and most the dealers already exist, they can focus solely on the retail account and Ã¢â¬Å"Do it YourselfersÃ¢â¬ who contribute $6 billion to the total market sales per year of architectural products. (Appendix 1. 1) The sales representative will focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"Do it YourselfersÃ¢â¬ in the non-Dallas Forth Worth area since they accumulate 70% of sales in that area as it is. We do not want to focus on the professional painters since 70% of our sales already comes from them in the Dallas Forth Worth area, and professional painters will chose our brand as it is because of the quality and knowledge and service of our representatives. We have to focus on reaching out to the Ã¢â¬Å"Do it YourselfersÃ¢â¬ through retail accounts which is what the new sales representative will do. Ã¢â¬Å"Do It YourselfersÃ¢â¬ 1) pick their project and product, 2) they gather information, 3) decide on the store, and 4) decide on the product they buy. So through a four step decision process of a Ã¢â¬Å"Do It YourselferÃ¢â¬ is where the sales representative will come into the picture to push them along to make the decision of choosing JanMarÃ¢â¬â¢s brand. Even if the sales representative made no new sales (which would not be the case if hired properly) and only was paid his salary, JanMar, Inc. still would still make $1,080,000 net profit before taxes which is smarter than implementing an added advertisement budget strategy, or cutting the price by 20%, or staying the same. It is better to have more people working in order to reach out to consumers and sell the product and brand. Sales representatives can truly connect to the Ã¢â¬Å"Do it YourselfersÃ¢â¬ through their knowledge and passion; rather than just focusing solely on a mass advertising plan that wastes money reaching out to people not even needing paints or cutting the costs so low that it takes away from the superior quality aspect. Therefore, I suggest that you hire a new sales representative because this option will be the most cost effective way to increase market share, revenue, and awareness in the architectural paint coatings marketing in the Southwest United States.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Diversity in the media - Essay Example They may derive from any number of aspects of the communication content. Ã¢â¬Å"They may be considered as psychological or political or economic or sociological. They may operate upon opinions, values, information levels, skills, taste, or overt behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Heibert, 2001). According to Don Rojas (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"News organizations help shape the perceptions of millions and, through these influences, even determine the destiny of our people. The media can either tell our stories accurately or misrepresent our experiences.Ã¢â¬ One media organization that is dedicated to reporting the news of the day with an alternative slant that purposely calls into question the one-sided viewpoint typically presented in more traditional programs is The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. Although it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t at first seem to have any particular slant toward a gendered or racial audience, closer examination of the text and its associated advertising will reveal that this show is geared mostly to the traditional WASP (white anglo-saxon protestant) upwardly-mobile male viewer. The Daily Show is a 30-minute late night television program that airs each weeknight and bases its humor on the news events of the day, occasionally making biting observations on policymakers and other issues. It takes a decidedly and unapologetic liberal stance to the more conservatively reported news and events reported elsewhere. In the show, a single Ã¢â¬Ënews anchorÃ¢â¬â¢, Jon Stewart, recaps the headline news stories of the day through the use of actual news footage, previously taped field interviews, in-studio guest appearances and live coverage of events when possible. The show employs approximately five other individuals, most of them male, who are placed in a Ã¢â¬ËreporterÃ¢â¬â¢ type position to cover in-field interviews or other features of the show. It is produced by Jon Stewart and Ben Karlin with co-executive
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Using the two articles and any relevant primary sources, compare the role of youth culture in these two decades. In these two decades, to what degree did youth - Assignment Example This difference was fresh latitude in experience. In addition, the youth experienced an increase in individual liberty, new-fangled communicative nurture, and more room for experimentation. Therefore, this implies that the youth culture played a critical role in altering American history. Only a few youth were interested in imitating the lives of their professors, or in caring immensely for books. In addition, Cmiel also argues that the youth were immensely tolerant in attitude since their schools played a critical part. It is of the essence to say that instructions exposed the youth to the relativism of philosophers and writers who had long prepared the ground for youthÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs and values (Cmiel, 462). Moreover, this fresh latitude in familiarity detached the youth from their parents as well as the American past. The majority of the youth was sent to school rather than vocation. This necessitated adjustments at a time when aged attitudes towards sex, religion, and manners paved way for newer practices such as dating, movies, communal work patterns, and Sunday golf. This implies that this culture adopted by the youth also played a decisive role in altering American history. The youth turned enthusiastically to what was innovative in the culture, and did it with utmost delight and excitement. When the youth in the early twenties altered adult standards of respectabili ty in sexual behavior, and even expanded the possibilities of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, they were efficiently directing individuals away from adult norms, generating and approving fresh social patterns (Cmiel 463). Therefore, it is worth mentioning that youth culture played a significant role in altering American history. As the youth opposed prohibition and drank liquor, they were merely denying the exigency of adult norms, rebuffing the perception of a static standard of morality, and questioning the legitimacy of adult laws (Cmiel 464). In adjusting to adult standards, they became
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Analysis - Case Study Example This implies if a go ahead would be granted for the firms to merge the market risks a situation whereby there is minimal competition with one company controlling pricing since the other players would not match its market penetration together with the customer base that it commands. Apparently the suit came a month after the merger had been completed when nearly all the required transactions had already been sealed. Some of the Wild Oats outlets had been rebranded to Whole Foods while other had been closed down or sold in cases where the two previous companies held concurrent stores. The share capital agreed to this particular merger deal was settled including Whole Foods absorbing the debts that Wild Oats held previously (Aprill, 2008). The suit was heard and determined by the district court where it was decided that all the due diligence required was followed thus giving the merger a clean bill of health to conclude the deal. It was a great relieve for both companies since they would not engage in reverse negotiations in the event the deal was canceled. However contrary to everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations the Federal Trade Commission went to the court of appeal to contest the ruling after some stores were found running under the original name of Wild Oats. The CEO of Whole Foods was in a dilemma of whether to continue affecting the remaining process of the merger or wait for the determination of the case in case the previous ruling is overturned in favour of Federal Trade Commission (Aprill, 2008). The industry is founded on the trend in which consumers are turning to healthy living by consumption of natural and organic foods to avoid the effects that come along genetically modified foods. Recently a steady rise has been observed in many American households in terms of the number of people suffering from lifestyle diseases a majority of these cases are
Truth About Food Labels - Assignment Example So lets study five categories of deceptive food tags one can encounter to the grocery store, to guarantee one does not play into the hands of vendors. Animal food products like meat and eggs, branded as "natural" must be minimally processed and comprise non-natural elements. Nevertheless, the natural label does not consist of any ideals concerning farm practices and simply applies to processing of meat and egg products. There are no principles or guidelines for the labeling of natural food products if they do not contain meat or eggs." That pretty much explains it all and expounds how Frito-Lay, owned by PepsiCo (PEP) , promotes "all-natural" Cheetos by lightly redefining the term as "No additives, no non-natural flavors, and no synthetic colors." Unless supervisory bodies step up administration, the industry will have to police itself. There is hope for improvement, however. Increasing pressure -- together with lawsuits -- mandated PepsiCo to alter its "Simply Natural" chip merchandises to "Simply" without altering ingredients. In August 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration came up with a final rule defining the term for voluntary use. According to the rule, labels were to be brought to compliance defining food as either gluten free; or does not comprise an ingredient that is gluten-having grain, derived from a gluten-containing grain that has been processed to eliminate gluten, if the usage of that ingredient leads in the manifestation of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food. Also, any inevitable presence of gluten in the food must be less than 20 ppm." It is shocking to realize that Dominos Pizza offers gluten-free crusts that agree with the new canons. Unfortunately, one has to lob most other pizza offerings aside.Ã
Friday, July 26, 2019
Marketing - Essay Example A personal touch with the customer, understanding his need, proper courtesy and a genuine smile is all that he longs for. It has something more to do with Max Weber bureaucracy or organizational pyramid (2) where everyone points a finger to the other one. In last two decade, the entire marketing scenario has gone through a paradigm shift and excellent customer service appears to be the deciding factor in this changing order. First of all, it is the sense of belonging, the proud ownership of the employees that literally change the face of the organization. The training of the employees that makes them serve the customer in a better manner plays the pivotal role. He should learn to communicate effectively, put a genuine smile in his face and be willing to serve his customer in every conceivable way. The stuffs should also know how to outmaneuver the customer without compromising the It is observed that a typical grocery shop stores 30,000 products and the owner answers same no of quarries. In supermarket the product listing may cross well past six digit marks but the product information which needs to be volunteered is surprisingly absent. The profit surges upwards if some subtle changes can be taken care of. For instance, Wal-Mart has a concerted return policy and a podium in every store where anyone can put a question regarding any service (3).The resultant outcome is a satisfied customer who returns again and again Ã¢â¬â to contribute to the profit of the organization. There can be multi pronged way to provide better customer care in a supermarket. Firstly, the proper motivations of the employees that work wonder. Ã¢â¬Å"At IBM, every one sellsÃ¢â¬ as Buck Rodgers had put it in his best seller Ã¢â¬ËThe IBM WayÃ¢â¬â¢ (4) which should be the anthem of every supermarkets which aspires to make it big. From the doorman to the casher, every one needs to work in unison, compromising over everything except company ethics and profitability. The
Thursday, July 25, 2019
The consumer protection law of Qatar - Essay Example When it comes to the relationships between business and their consumers, there are many laws, which protect these relationships. A consumer is described as an individual or entity that acquires products for direct ownership or use instead for resale or use in manufacturing and production (Fayyad, 2012). In Qatar, one of these laws is the Consumer Protection Act that was signed into law back in 2008. The consumer protection law is a field of law, which regulates private relationships between businesses and their individual clients, who purchase those goods and services that they produce (Fayyad, 2012). The law covers a lot of topic, comprising of, but not necessarily restricted to privacy rights, product liability, unfair business practices, misrepresentation, fraud, as well as other business and consumer interactions. It is means of preventing scams and fraud from sales and service contracts, pricing, bill collector regulation, utility turnoffs, consolidation, and personal loans, whi ch might cause bankruptcy to both the business and the consumer (ILO, 2012). Consumer interests and welfare can also be safeguarded through enhancing competition in the markets that indirectly and directly serve clients, consistent with financial efficiency, but this matter is treated in competition law. This paper will discuss the consumer protection law of Qatar and its elements. The Consumer Protection Law was passed to respond to the demands of Qatar citizens who were slowing turning into victims of corrupt merchants. Earlier on, safeguarding had been provided under the Combating Commercial Fraud Law of 1999 (ILO, 2012). Normally, during a malpractice or fault, consumers used to have little or no recourse against any business; thus, adverts informing clients concerning products had over-exaggerated messages (ILO, 2012). Other underhand malpractices were utilized like selling sub-standard or defective
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
On the Internet tax and whether Arizona should or should not repeal its law taxing online sales - Essay Example On the contrary, if not well considered they can act as barriers on investors whose markets exist online. The U.S constitution has two provisions from Supreme Court jurisprudence that define the enacting of nexus, which include Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Commercial clause. The court requires that a particular state cannot impose duties levying responsibilities on a seller who is not physically present in the state, under the Dormant Commerce law. This law is subject to amendments by the congress as the congressional regulation has influence on most tax-related policies. Congress may therefore allow different regulations to govern commerce between states. The law of physical presence of the seller and buyer still holds until when the congress may change the contents of the law. Another tax that is levied together with the sales tax is the use tax., During the sale of services and commodities in the same state, sales tax is imposed, while the residents incur a use tax if they purchase goods or services outside the state boundaries. Use tax play an important role in ensuring that the citizens of a particular state purchase goods within the boundaries and evade the sales tax. However, constitutionally enough bond or Ã¢â¬Å"nexusÃ¢â¬ must be put in place between businesses and state on the onset of a state imposing tax burden on a business that operates beyond its boundaries. Remarkably, there exist discriminatory taxes like the Commercial Clause that bars states that do not allow commerce between states. As a result, states that impose taxes on the remote out-of-state sellers and not on the sellers from within its boundaries are disciplined by a judicial scrutiny. The subject state is exempted only when the tax burden is excessive as compared to the local benefits. Supreme Court under the Due Process Clause offered a distinction between the nexus analysis and the dormant clause for congress. The
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Porters Five Forces - Essay Example Johnson Controls supplies the Ford franchise with car batteries, electronics, seats and interiors. TRW is ranked higher than other peers in the industry including Johnson Control and it is due to this reason that TRW Automotive received two Ford World Excellence Awards. (United States Security Exchange, 2014) 3) Who are the major buyer groups of the product provided by the industry; what are their characteristics ( i.e. size of group, demographics, income level, etc.); are there many or few in each buyer group; who has power over whom? 4) The golden generation (55 to 64 year olds) had higher vehicle purchases than other age groups according to a recent survey by Michigan University. In 2011 alone, Ford Motors sold 23% of all its models to this age group, which was higher than all other industry players combined. This age group is estimated to be around 76 million and has passed 35 to 44 year old age group as the consumer leaders. (United States Security Exchange, 2014) According to 2014 survey, the three main industry players are General Motors Company, Ford Motor and Toyota Motor. The total number of units sold by General Motors was 2.7 million; this represents 17.9% of the total market share. Ford Motors came second with 2.4 million units sold; representing 15.9% market share. Toyota came third with 2.2 million units sold in the US, representing 14.3% of the market share. (Business Monitor International, 2014) FordÃ¢â¬â¢s F-Series remains to be the best selling model in the US. However, there are domestic and international brands that are growing in popularity each year. ChryslerÃ¢â¬â¢s Jeep Cherokee reported 9% increase in sales, 1% shy of the F-series. Subaru has also seen its sales rise after it switched focus from china to the US. Other popular brands include Mercedes Benz and BMW. (Business Monitor International,
Monday, July 22, 2019
Rome and Juliet Essay The prologue is the introduction, which gives an overview of the play. It tells us what happens at the end of the play, in this case in Romeo and Juliet it is told in the introduction, for example the lines, a pair of star-crossd lovers take their life, doth with their death bury their parents strife. These two lines say that Romeo and Juliet both deep in love with each other, die at the end of the play, the reason being that their parents hated each other. It also sets the scene of Fair Verona and it explains the contents of the play, Two households, and break to new mutiny. The prologue is said by the chorus. This means it is an idea of a group of people taken from ancient Greek tradition. The prologue does not introduce the audience to the characters in the play; it just talks briefly about the events within the play. It is self consciously dramatic. It emphasises its purpose in telling the story, Is now the two hours traffic of our stage. It directly tells the audience to pay attention, The which if you with patient ears attend, what here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend, and the play will develop from what the prologue has been revealing. In Franco Zefirellis production of Romeo and Juliet, the prologue is very brief and short. The film starts off with the details, the opening credits. The font to the credits is in white and in a quite gothic style of writing making it fit in with the traditional theme. While the details are slowly appearing on the screen, around the screen there is a thin border of orange geometric shapes on a yellow background. As the border is so bright and colourful, it is able to immediately catch the audiences eyes and therefore grabs their attention. The border suggests a very sixties styles. You would probably expect a more formal, dark edged kind of border. A soft and slow melody played on a harpsichord plays quietly in the background. The effect that Zefirelli tries to create here is to create a nice calm beginning to the play. In shot one, you can see the camera panning over the city of Fair Verona and slightly out of focus. The light is blue and hazy, gradually brightening up as the camera pans, suggesting that it is dawn. The colour of the light in the sky shining over the city, creates a dreamy and peaceful effect, and adds to the beauty of the city that is being shown. You could only just make out the tops of tall buildings and churches at first, but as it gradually gets lighter, the buildings and other features become more into focus. The rooftops of houses, church spires and a river are seen clearly. You are able to feel the quietness of the city in the early morning, which again gives the effect of the city being very calm and peaceful. The camera pans round the whole city, and then moves up towards the sun and stop with the sun being directly in the middle of the screen shot. The sun suggests the hot foreign climate of a hot foreign country, such as Italy. Shakespeares name appears when the camera has stop panning and focused on the sun. All of this equals one continuos shot. The panning is slow, and the brightening of the day is slow, creating a slow pace to the shot. It gives me the impression of a slow climax to the prologue, getting more and more intense as it goes along, and stopping at the sun gives me the impression that it represents the end, with an either tragic end or a very happy end. I think that it is trying to relate to the whole play itself, with the gradual climax with an intense ending. Throughout shot one, the speaker slowly recites the prologue in a poetic style. He speaks slowly going with the steady flow of the slow motion of the panning of the camera, so that it would not effect the backgrounds creation of peace. The speaker of the prologue is a man whose voice is gentle, soothing and rhythmic as he echoes the prologue. He still speaks when going into the second shot. Shot two is of a medieval courtyard. In front of the courtyard there is the city wall with battlements made of stone and brick, which gives the impression of the setting being in the medieval times. The camera stops moving and shows the shot of the courtyard while the speaker finishes reciting the prologue. As he completes his speech of the prologue, the camera moves slightly round to the left, which shows that where the camera is next to the city wall, it is also one of the ends of a busy marketplace. The suns golden bright morning light shines over the city wall and through the street of the marketplace, representing that it is the start of a new day. The sound of the hustle and bustle of a busy marketplace gradually builds up and the first act of the first scene begins there. This effect is to bring in the play with a more calm start and not rushing into the play with a different shot, bringing the audience into a slow and calm beginning. Zefirelli does not create any huge special effects. The title of the play, Romeo and Juliet appears as the speaker says the words star-crossed lovers. Zefirellis purpose of having the title and the words star-crossed lovers coming up at the same time, is to reinforce visually and aurally the main point of the play that it is a tragic story about the lovers Romeo and Juliet. Baz Luhrmanns version of the prologue is done in much more detail and is emphasised a huge amount more. Luhrmann tries to grab the attention of the audience with very fast moving screen shots and very lively music. The first shot that comes up on the screen is of a TV with a blank screen, and the distance between the camera and the TV is very far, making the TV look very small in the distance. The first sound is the fuzziness of a TV, and then on the screen of the TV, the opening credits are displayed on white tiles with a black background. The contrast between the colours gives a very sharp effect. This gives a very different first effect on the audience compared to Zefirellis opening shot. Luhrmanns first shot of the bold white tiles with a black background, gets the audiences attention straight away. After the credits, a female newsreader appears on the TV screen, and she reads aloud the prologue. She says the prologue like reading aloud a news report rather than in a poetic sonnet way. This makes the prologue subtle and it makes the audience think twice before realising that it is the prologue that she is saying. The subtle speaking of the prologue differs with Zefirellis make of the prologue being obvious to opening up the film. Beside the newsreader in the background, there is a small picture with some text underneath it. As the camera is in the far distance, it makes it hard to see what the picture and text are, which makes the audience wonder what it is. While the newsreader is saying the prologue, the camera subtly zooms in directly towards the screen, and the picture in the corner gradually comes into focus. The picture is of a broken ring with the text underneath it saying Star crossd lovers. The symbolism of the broken ring is that the lovers end up being torn away from each other. After the newsreader says the twelfth line of the prologue, the camera suddenly picks up speeds and zooms right into the TV screen, through a high street. At the same time the words, Fair Verona constantly flashes up in white with a black background. From the zooming, it has merged from one background into another. This sudden pick up of speed would as if wake up the audience and shocking them as the screen had suddenly gone from one shot to another. This is very unlike Zefirellis presentation of the prologue, as he keeps his prologue simple and calm all the way through, whereas Luhrmann uses the effect of zooming and flashing words up creating a dramatic scene. The reason of flashing the words, Fair Verona while the camera rushes down the high street, is to make the audience understand the comparison and realise exactly how fair Verona really is in his version of the film. It shows a decaying urban landscape contradicting fair Verona. The font style of the writing is bold like Arial, and is in block capitals, making it clear to the audience what it says. In Zefirellis, as the camera pans over the city, you can see that Verona is very pretty and fair, as the prologue says it is. As the camera reaches the end of the street, the camera is suddenly focused on the face of a statue, which was far in the distance from where the zooming into the street began. Very dramatic music starts to be played loudly, which produces a bigger effect on grabbing the audiences attention. The camera then pulls back to view the tops of two corporate buildings with the statue in the middle. The buildings have big signs on the top of them. They are the names of the two households, Capulet and Montague. They are in different colours, Capulet in red and Montague in blue. The differences in the colours emphasise the difference between the two. The effect of having the statue splitting the two buildings up is to make the point clear, that the two households need something or someone to keep them apart to avoid causing major trouble in the city, as they absolutely despise each other. The statue shown actually represents Jesus Christ. It is Jesus Christ who is trying to control the families and bringing some peace to the city. In Zefirellis version, the point that the two families cannot stand each other is not emphasised. As the prologue is said in the same tone and way all the way through and the pictures are just of how fair Verona is, does not give a definite and clear point that the two households are major enemies. Luhrmann makes it visual to the audience, the hate between the two families. The next part of the introduction to Luhrmanns production of Romeo and Juliet, is of a rapid chain of clips from one to the other including clips of police cars with VBPD on the side of them standing for Verona Beach Police Department. This is shown to tell the audience that this is Verona Beach and not fair Verona. The chain of clips also includes clips of helicopters, clips of the disaster from different viewpoints, some far up in the sky, some close up to casualties who were injured, and the damage done to the city by this one disaster brought up because of the hate between the Capulets and the Montagues. The disaster is emphasised in this rapid succession of clips, to stress how much damage can be caused by one incident done by the two families. It also makes the audience think and imagine if this one incident caused so much damage, the amount of damage that they probably had done to the city in the past and what would be done in the future. The prologue is said once again while another variety of images using other media of newspaper articles and magazine covers appear. This time, the prologue is said by a character whom is actually in the play, referring to how the prologue is traditionally said by the chorus. The character who speaks the prologue is Friar Lawrence, and he says it in a poetic way, and this time the rhythm of a sonnet is emphasised. A man with a soft, gentle and low voice speaks the prologue like it is in Zefirellis production. This is one similarity that the two productions have. As he speaks, some words of the prologue is emphasised by magazine headlines appearing, using the effect of spinning one on top of the other. The headlines include New Mutiny and Civil Blood Makes Civil Hands Unclean. These headlines are to tell the audience and remind them the symbolism and reasoning behind each word in the prologue. There is also a faint background of burning flames when these headlines appearing as if showing the damage done. The images however, some are of like modern day newspapers and magazines. The camera slowly pans through a rack of different covers, and the headline of each newspaper and magazine are all referring to the feud caused between the two households, emphasising that they produce big issues in the city. Other images in this group of images include police taking charge of the situation in a live kind of view, showing how fast the police and other services had to respond to reduce the risk of more damage happening. The police and fire departments had to work into the night with the clearing up of the situation. This is known as the images are taken from broad daylight into the dark night. These images give the audience a visual understanding of how bad it is of the two households hating each other, which can cause so many innocent people in the city to be harmed. As the speaking of the prologue comes to an end, with the two lines A pair of star crossd lovers, take their life with the lines shown in white writing on a black background. This effect by now would be recognised by the audience by now as it had been used before to state the words Fair Verona. This effect of repeating jogs the audiences memories reminding them again and again the importance of the lines in the prologue. As the prologue stops being spoken, the same dramatic music becomes loud again. Each of the main characters are shown one by one with a pause on each with the text describing who each of the characters are and how they are either related to Romeo or Juliet or what the purpose of the character is in the film. This presentation of the character echoes the style of how it was done in famous program called Dallas. In Zefirellis version, the characters were not introduced and the film got right into the first scene once the prologue was spoken. A shot of Romeo looking through the narrow gap of a door appears, and then the camera immediately changes its angle to show what he see, which is a church aisle with blue neon crosses and candles. The angles that these two shots were taken were both through a narrow opening of the door. The first shot was taken from the inside of the church looking at Romeo, the man standing outside the door, and the second shot was taken from the outside of the door looking into the church. It emphasises what Romeo had seen, which the audience can assume is Juliet lying on the alter at the end of the aisle, Romeo thinking that she had really died. It also symbolises with that it was the conclusion and the end, viewing Romeo and the crosses, show that they were linked together and producing the idea of death. There was one more series of fast moving clips and a rush of lines as a final wind up to the prologue. There are a variety of different clips of things that happen from the beginning of the play to the end. The repeating of the clips again and again produce permanent images into the minds of the audience. The prologue ends with the words take their life and move onto the first act. The words take their life are stated to tell the audience that the story line would conclude with something relevant to it. I think that it is a new technique Luhrmann has used. He uses the technique of grabbing the attention of the audience and makes them concentrate. The prologue being reinforced by being presented for the third time, does not makes the audience get bored and tire of the clips being seen and seen again, but make them more excited about the film. I think that both Zefirelli and Luhrmann were trying to represent Romeo and Juliet in a different way, with different techniques. The prologue was of course interpreted differently. Zefirelli presented the prologue in his production in a gentle and calm way all the way through giving the audience a good idea of the peace and beauty of Verona. Luhrmann of course presented the prologue in a different way, almost a complete contrast to what Zefirelli did. He changed Fair Verona into urban sprawled Verona. I think that the presentations of the prologue were both appropriate for their interpretations because Zefirelli wanted to keep his production of Romeo and Juliet original and alike Shakespeare. Luhrmann wanted to interpret the play into something slightly more modern and unlike Shakespeares original version. In Luhrmanns production he emphasised the complications between the two households and the alterations he had made to the film, like how he set his production in an urban city and called it Verona Beach instead of setting it in the original city of Verona in Italy.
Time Management Essay Time Management skills are essential for successful people these are the practical techniques which have helped the leading people in business, sport and public service reach the pinnacles of their careers. The 80:20 Rule This is neatly summed up in the Pareto Principle, or the 80:20 Rule. This argues that typically 80% of unfocussed effort generates only 20% of results. The remaining 80% of results are achieved with only 20% of the effort. While the ratio is not always 80:20, this broad pattern of a small proportion of activity generating non-scalar returns recurs so frequently as to be the norm in many areas. If you work for an organization, calculate how much you cost it each year. Include your salary, payroll taxes, the cost of office space you occupy, equipment and facilities you use, expenses, administrative support, etc. If you are self-employed, work the annual running costs of your business. If you work normal hours, you will have approximately 200 productive days each year. If you work 7Ã ½ hours each day, this equates to 1,500 hours in a year. From these figures, calculate an hourly rate. This should give a reasonable estimate of how much your time is worth this may be a surprisingly large amount When you are deciding whether or not to take a task on, think about this value are you wasting your or your organizations resources on a low yield task? ________________________________________ Personal Time Management for Busy Managers by Gerard M Blair Time passes, quickly. This article looks at the basics of Personal Time Management and describes how the Manager can assume control of this basic resource. The Eff words The three Eff words are [concise OED]: Ã¢â¬ ¢Effective having a definite or desired effect Ã¢â¬ ¢Efficient productive with minimum waste or effort Ã¢â¬ ¢Effortless Ã seemingly without effort; natural, easy Personal Time Management is about winning the Eff words: making them apply to you and your daily routines. What is Personal Time Management? Personal Time Management is about controlling the use of your most valuable (and undervalued) resource. Consider these two questions: what would happen if you spent company money with as few safeguards as you spend company time, when was the last time you scheduled a review of your time allocation? The absence of Personal Time Management is characterized by last minute rushes to meet dead-lines, meetings which are either double booked or achieve nothing, days which seem somehow to slip unproductively by, crises which loom unexpected from nowhere. This sort of environment leads to inordinate stress and degradation of performance: it must be stopped. Poor time management is often a symptom of over confidence: techniques which used to work with small projects and workloads are simply reused with large ones. But inefficiencies which were insignificant in the small role are ludicrous in the large. You can not drive a motor bike like a bicycle, nor can you manage a supermarket-chain like a market stall. The demands, the problems and the payoffs for increased efficiency are all larger as your responsibility grows; you must learn to apply proper techniques or be bettered by those who do. Possibly, the reason Time Management is poorly practised is that it so seldom forms a measured part of appraisal and performance review; what many fail to foresee, however, is how intimately it is connected to aspects which do. Personal Time Management has many facets. Most managers recognize a few, but few recognize them all. There is the simple concept of keeping a well ordered diary and the related idea of planned activity. But beyond these, it is a tool for the systematic ordering of your influence on events, it underpins many other managerial skills such as Effective Delegation and Project Planning. Personal Time Management is a set of tools which allow you to: eliminate wastage be prepared for meetings refuse excessive workloads monitor project progress allocate resource (time) appropriate to a tasks importance ensure that long term projects are not neglected plan each day efficiently plan each week effectively and to do so simply with a little self-discipline. Since Personal Time Management is a management process just like any other, it must be planned, monitored and regularly reviewed. In the followingÃ sections, we will examine the basic methods and functions of Personal Time Management. Since true understanding depends upons experience, you will be asked to take part by looking at aspects of your own work. If you do not have time to this right now ask yourself: why not? Current Practice What this article is advocating is the adoption of certain practices which will give you greater control over the use and allocation of your primary resource: time. Before we start on the future, it is worth considering the present. This involves the simplistic task of keeping a note of how you spend your time for a suitably long period of time (say a week). I say simplistic since all you have to do is create a simple table, photocopy half-a-dozen copies and carry it around with you filling in a row every time you change activity. After one week, allocate time (start as you mean to go on) to reviewing this log. Waste Disposal We are not looking here to create new categories of work to enhance efficiency (that comes later) but simply to eliminate wastage in your current practice. The average IEE Chartered Engineer earns about 27,000 pounds per annum: about 12.50 pounds per hour, say 1 pound every 5 minutes; for how many 5 minute sections of your activity would you have paid a pound? The first step is a critical appraisal of how you spend your time and to question some of your habits. In your time log, identify periods of time which might have been better used. There are various sources of waste. The most common are social: telephone calls, friends dropping by, conversations around the coffee machine. It would be foolish to eliminate all non-work related activity (we all need a break) but if its a choice between chatting to Harry in the afternoon and meeting the next pay-related deadline Your time log will show you if this is a problem and you might like to do something about it before your boss does. In your time log, look at each work activity and decide objectively how much time each was worth to you, and compare that with the time you actually spent on it. An afternoon spent polishing an internal memo into a Pulitzer prize winning piece of provocative prose is waste; an hour spent debating the leaving present of a colleague is waste; a minute spent sorting out the paper-clips is waste (unless relaxation). This type of activity will be reduced naturally byÃ managing your own time since you will not allocate time to the trivial. Specifically, if you have a task to do, decide before hand how long it should take and work to that deadline then move on to the next task. Another common source of waste stems from delaying work which is unpleasant by finding distractions which are less important or unproductive. Check your log to see if any tasks are being delayed simply because they are dull or difficult. Time is often wasted in changing between activities. For this reason it is useful to group similar tasks together thus avoiding the start-up delay of each. The time log will show you where these savings can be made. You may want then to initiate a routine which deals with these on a fixed but regular basis. Doing Subordinates Work Having considered what is complete waste, we now turn to what is merely inappropriate. Often it is simpler to do the job yourself. Using the stamp machine to frank your own letters ensures they leave by the next post; writing the missing summary in the latest progress report from your junior is more pleasant than sending it back (and it lets you choose the emphasis). Rubbish! Large gains can be made by assigning secretarial duties to secretaries: they regularly catch the next post, they type a lot faster than you. Your subordinate should be told about the missing section and told how (and why) to slant it. If you have a task which could be done by a subordinate, use the next occasion to start training him/her to do it instead of doing it yourself you will need to spend some time monitoring the task thereafter, but far less that in doing it yourself. Doing the work of Others A major impact upon your work can be the tendency to help others with theirs. Now, in the spirit of an open and harmonious work environment it is obviously desirable that you should be willing to help out but check your work log and decide how much time you spend on your own work and how much you spend on others. For instance, if you spend a morning checking the grammar and spelling in the training material related to you last project, then that is waste. Publications should do the proofreading, that is their job, they are better at it than you are; you should deal at the technical level. The remaining problem is your manager. Consider what periods in yourÃ work log were used to perform tasks that your manager either repeated or simply negated by ignoring it or redefining the task, too late. Making your manager efficient is a very difficult task, but where it impinges upon your work and performance you must take the bull by the horns (or whatever) and confront the issue. Managing your manager may seem a long way from Time Management but no one impacts upon your use of time more than your immediate superior. If a task is ill defined seek clarification (is that a one page summary or a ten page report?). If seemingly random alterations are asked in your deliverables, ask for the reasons and next time clarify these and similar points at the beginning. If the manager is difficult, try writing a small specification for each task before beginning it and have it agreed. While you can not tactfully hold your manager to this contract if he/she has a change of mind, it will at least cause him/her to consider the issues early on, before you waste your time on false assumptions. External Appointments The next stage of Personal Time Management is to start taking control of your time. The first problem is appointments. Start with a simple appointments diary. In this book you will have (or at least should have) a complete list of all your known appointments for the foreseeable future. If you have omitted your regular ones (since you remember them anyway) add them now. Your appointments constitute your interaction with other people; they are the agreed interface between your activities and those of others; they are determined by external obligation. They often fill the diary. Now, be ruthless and eliminate the unnecessary. There may be committees where you can not productively contribute or where a subordinate might be (better) able to participate. There may be long lunches which could be better run as short conference calls. There may be interviews which last three times as long as necessary because they are scheduled for a whole hour. Eliminate the wastage starting today. The next stage is to add to your diary lists of other, personal activity which will enhance your use of the available time. Consider: what is the most important type of activity to add to your diary? No:- stop reading for a moment and really, consider. The single most important type of activity is those which will save you time: allocate time to save time, a stitch in time saves days. And most importantly of all,Ã always allocate time to time management: at least five minutes each and every day. For each appointment left in the diary, consider what actions you might take to ensure that no time is wasted: plan to avoid work by being prepared. Thus, if you are going to a meeting where you will be asked to comment on some report, allocate time to read it so avoiding delays in the meeting and increasing your chances of making the right decision the first time. Consider what actions need to be done before AND what actions must be done to follow-up. Even if the latter is unclear before the event, you must still allocate time to review the outcome and to plan the resulting action. Simply mark in your diary the block of time necessary to do this and, when the time comes, do it. Scheduling Projects The most daunting external appointments are deadlines: often, the handover of deliverables. Do you leave the work too late? Is there commonly a final panic towards the end? Are the last few hectic hours often marred by errors? If so, use Personal Time Management. The basic idea is that your management of personal deadlines should be achieved with exactly the same techniques you would use in a large project: Ã¢â¬ ¢check the specification are you sure that you agree on what is to be delivered Ã¢â¬ ¢break the task down into small sections so that you can estimate the time needed for each, and monitor progress Ã¢â¬ ¢schedule reviews of your progress (e.g. after each sub-task) so that you can respond quickly to difficulties Like most management ideas, this is common sense. Some people, however, refute it because in practise they find that it merely shows the lack of time for a project which must be done anyway. This is simply daft! If simple project planning and time management show that the task can not be done, then it will not be done but by knowing at the start, you have a chance to do something about it. An impossible deadline affects not only your success but also that of others. Suppose a product is scheduled for release too soon because you agree to deliver too early. Marketing and Sales will prepare customers to expect the product showing why they really need it but it will not arrive. The customers will be dissatisfied or even lost, the competition will have advanced warning, and all because you agreed to do the impossible. You can avoid this type of problem. By practising time management, you will always have a clear understanding of how you spend your time and what time isÃ unallocated. If a new task is thrust upon you, you can estimate whether it is practical. The project planning tells you how much time is needed and the time management tells you how much time is available. There are four ways to deal with impossible deadlines: Ã¢â¬ ¢Get the deadline extended Ã¢â¬ ¢Scream for more resources Ã¢â¬ ¢Get the Deliverable redefined to something practical Ã¢â¬ ¢State the position clearly so that your boss (and his/her boss) have fair warning If this simple approach seems unrealistic, consider the alternative. If you have an imposed, but unobtainable, deadline and you accept it; then the outcome is your assured failure. Of course, there is a fifth option: move to a company with realistic schedules. One defence tactic is to present your superior with a current list of your obligations indicating what impact the new task will have on these, and ask him/her to assign the priorities: I cant do them all, which should I slip?. Another tactic is to keep a data base of your time estimates and the actual time taken by each task. This will quickly develop into a source of valuable data and increase the accuracy of your planning predictions. There is no reason why you should respond only to externally imposed deadlines. The slightly shoddy product which you hand-over after the last minute rush (and normally have returned for correction the following week) could easily have been polished if only an extra day had been available so move your personal deadline forward and allow yourself the luxury of leisured review before the product is shipped. Taking this a step further, the same sort of review might be applied to the product at each stage of its development so that errors and rework time are reduced. Thus by allocating time to quality review, you save time in rework; and this is all part of project planning supported and monitored by your time management. Finally, for each activity you should estimate how much time it is worth and allocate only that amount. This critical appraisal may even suggest a different approach or method so that the time matches the tasks importance. Beware of perfection, it takes too long allocate time for fitness for purpose, then stop. Monitoring Staff Your Personal Time Management also affects other people, particularly your subordinates. Planning projects means not only allocating your time but also the distribution of tasks; and this should be done in the same planned, monitored and reviewed manner as your own scheduling. Any delegated task should be specified with an (agreed) end date. As a Manager, you are responsible for ensuring that the tasks allocated to your subordinates are completed successfully. Thus you should ensure that each task is concluded with a deliverable (for instance, a memo to confirm completion) you make an entry in your diary to check that this has arrived. Thus, if you agree the task for Tuesday, Wednesday should have an entry in your diary to check the deliverable. This simple device allows you to monitor progress and to initiate action as necessary. Long term Objectives There are many long term objectives which the good Manager must achieve, particularly with regard to the development, support and motivation of his/her work-team. Long term objectives have the problem of being important but not urgent; they do not have deadlines, they are distant and remote. For this reason, it is all too easy to ignore them in favour of the urgent and immediate. Clearly a balance must be struck. The beauty of Time Management is that the balance can be decided objectively (without influence from immediate deadlines) and self-imposed through the use of the diary. Simply, a manager might decide that one hour a week should be devoted to personnel issues and would then allocate a regular block of time to that activity. Of course if the factory is on fire, or World War III is declared, the manager may have to re-allocate this time in a particular week but barring such crises, this time should then become sacrosanct and always applied to the same, designated purpose. Similarly, time may be allocated to staff development and training. So if one afternoon a month is deemed to be a suitable allocation, then simply designate the second Thursday (say) of each month and delegate the choice of speakers. The actual time spent in managing this sort of long term objective is small, but without that deliberate planning it will not be achieved. Once you have implemented Personal Time Management, it is worth using some of that control to augment your own career. Some quiet weekend, you should sketch out your own long term objectives and plan a route to them. As you would any long term objective,Ã allocate time to the necessary sub-tasks and monitor your progress. If you do not plan where you want to go, you are unlikely to get there. Concluding Remarks. Personal Time Management is a systematic application of common sense strategies. It requires little effort, yet it promotes efficient work practices by highlighting wastage and it leads to effective use of time by focusing it on your chosen activities. Personal Time Management does not solve your problems; it reveals them, and provides a structure to implement and monitor solutions. It enables you to take control of your own time how you use it is then up to you.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Importance of breast milk as a mode of passive immunisation in babies Importance of breast milk as a mode of passive immunization in babies Content 01) Introduction 02) Composition of breast milk 03) Passive Immunization 4. Components in breast milk which contribute to the passive immunization in babies 4.1) Anti-infective 2) Ant allergic 3) Anti-inflammatory 4) Drugs 05) Conclusion Introduction Breastfeeding provides unsurpassed natural nutrition to the newborn and infant. Human breast milk also contains numerous protective factors against infectious disease and may influence immune system development.If immune system development is significantly improved with the introduction of components of breast milk, then prematurely discontinued breastfeeding may facilitate pathogenesis of many chronic diseases later in life (e.g., autoimmune disorders) In addition to being the best source of nutrition for newborns and infants, human breast milk also provides immunologic protection against many infectionsAlthough most of the immunologic benefit cited by researchers relates to protection from diarrheal diseases that are especially prevalent in developing countries(2,3) breastfeeding has also been shown to protect infants against extra intestinal infections, such as otitis media(4,6)and respiratory diseases.(7,10) Breast-feeding maintains the maternal-fetal immunological link after birth, may favor the transmission of immune competence from the mother to her infant, and is considered an important contributory factor to the neonatal immune defense system during a delicate and crucial period for immune development. The protection from infections may be ensured either passively by factors with anti-infective, hormonal, enzymatic, trophic, and bioactive activity present in breast milk, or through a modulator effect on the neonatal immune system exerted by cells, cytokines, and other immune agents in human milk. This essay will show how these factors of breast milk affect the passive immune system in babies. Composition of Breast milk Breast milk has all the necessary nutrients for infant in correct proportionsÃ including macro and micronutrients. The first fluid produced by mothers after delivery is colostrum, which is distinct in volume, appearance and composition. Colostrum, produced in low quantities in the first few days postpartum, is rich in immunologic components such as secretory IgA, lactoferrin,leukocytes, as well as developmental factors such as epidermal growth factor (4).Colostrumalso contains relatively low concentrations of lactose, indicating its primary functions to beimmunologic and trophic rather than nutritional. Levels of sodium, chloride and magnesiumare higher and levels of potassium and calcium are lower in colostrum than later milk.(1) The nutritional components of human milk derive from three sources: Some of the nutrientsof milk originate by synthesis in the lactocyte, some are dietary in origin, and some originatefrom maternal stores. Overall, the nutritional quality of human milk is highly conserved, butattention to maternal diet is important for some vitamins and the fatty acid composition ofhuman milk.(4) The macronutrient composition of human milk varies within mothers and across lactationbut is remarkably conserved across populations despite variations in maternal nutritional Status (13).The mean macronutrient composition of mature, term milk isestimated to be approximately 0.9 to 1.2 g/dL for protein, 3.2 to 3.6 g/dL for fat, and 6.7 to7.8 g/dL for lactose. Energy estimates range from 65 to 70 kcal/dL, and are highly correlatedwith the fat content of human milk. Macronutrient composition differs between preterm andterm milk, with preterm milk tending to be higher in protein and fat. A study inDavis, California examined the association between maternal characteristics and the composition of human milk macronutrients(4) and found that after 4 months postpartum, themacronutrient concentrations of human milk are associated with one or more of thefollowing factors: Maternal body weight for height, protein intake, parity, return ofmenstruation, and nursing frequency. This study also found that mothers who producehigher quantities of milk tend to have lower milk concentrations of fat and protein but higherconcentrations of lactose. The proteins of human milk are divided into the whey and casein fractions or complexes,with each comprised by a remarkable array of specific proteins and peptides(4,1).The mostabundant proteins are casein, Ã ±-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin IgA,lysozyme, and serum albumin.(14) Non-protein nitrogen-containing compounds, includingurea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, amino acids, and nucleotides, comprise ~25% of humanmilk nitrogen. Human milk protein concentration is not affected by maternal diet, but increases with maternal bodyweight for height, and decreases in mothers producing higher amounts of milk.10 Human milk fat is characterized by high contents of palmitic and oleic acids, the formerheavily concentrated in the 2-position and the latter in the 1- and 3-positions of thetriglycerides. Fat is the most highly variable macronutrient of milk. Hind milk, defined as thelast milk of a feed, may contain two to three times the concentration of milk fat found inforemilk, defined as the initial milk of a feed. The principal sugar of human milk is the disaccharide lactose. The concentration of lactosein human milk is the least variable of the macronutrients, but higher concentrations oflactose are found in the milk of mothers producing higher quantities of milk. (10) The other significant carbohydrates of human milk are the oligosaccharides, which compriseapproximately 1 g/dL in human milk, depending on stage of lactation and maternal geneticfactors. (1) Human milk provides the normative standard for infant nutrition. Nevertheless, manymicronutrients vary in human milk depending on maternal diet and body stores , including vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, D,and iodine.(1) Vitamin K is extremely low inhuman milk and thus, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends an injection of thisvitamin to avoid hemorrhagic disease of the newborn(4).Vitamin D also occurs in lowquantity in human milk, particularly with low maternal exposure to sunshine, a circumstancenow common in populations worldwide Human milk contains numerous growth factors that have wide-ranging effects on theintestinal tract, vasculature, nervous system, and endocrine system. Intestinal maturation and repair: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) Found in amniotic fluid and breast milk, (1, 4) EGF is critical to the maturation andhealing of the intestinal mucosa EGF is highest in early milk anddecreases over lactation.45,46 The average EGF level in colostrum is 2000-fold higher and inmature milk is 100-fold higher than in maternal serum.41 Further, preterm milk containshigher levels of EGF than term milk.(4) Growth and development of the enteral nervous system: Neuronal growth factors (GDNF) In human cells, breast milk-derived GDNF increases neuron survival and outgrowth.51 Tissue growth: The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) superfamily IGF-I and IGF-II, as well as IGF binding proteins and IGF-specific proteases, are found inhuman milk.(1, 4)Levels are highest in colostrum, and steadily decline over the course oflactation.(1,4). Enteraladministration of physiological levels of IGF-I stimulates erythropoiesis and increaseshematocrit.(1) Regulation of the vascular system: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Angiogenesis is regulated primarily by the relative expression of VEGF and its antagonists. VEGF concentration is highest in colostrum in both preterm and term human milk, withpreterm milk containing less VEGF than term milk.(4) Intestinal development and prevention of anemia: Erythropoietin (Epo) Milk contains significant quantities of Epo, which is the primary hormone responsible forincreasing red blood cells (RBC). Blood loss, intestinal pathology, and immaturity of thehematopoietic system all contribute to anemia of prematurity, which profoundly impactsgrowth and development. (4,1) Growth-regulating hormones: Calcitonin and Somatostatin Calcitonin and its precursor procalcitonin are present in large quantities in milk.(4) Somatostatin is rapidly degraded in the jejunum and not transferred through theintestinal wall, but delivery with milk protects it from degradation and maintains bioactivity within the lumen (1, 4). Passive Immunization the ability of an organism to resist disease, either through the activities of specialized blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation (active immunity) or by the injection of antiserum or the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her baby via the placenta or breast milk (passive immunity)(7,8,10) Passive immunization can be categorized as Natural and Artificial. Artificially prepared antibodies are introduced in congenital or acquired immunodeficiency,4,7where as naturally occurring passive immunity transfer of maternal antibody Ã¢â¬âmediated immunity through placenta or breast milk(3,4,7). MotherÃ¢â¬â¢s previous exposure to antigens is directly proportional to the amount of antibodies present in the milk9. Although antibodies are proteins, they do not breakdown into peptides by the proteolytic activity of infantÃ¢â¬â¢s gastric enzymes(14).Thus they provide immunity throughout the digestive tract and systemic immunity without exerting any allergic symptoms (4, 7, 8, 10)for common diseases occur after birth. Components in Breast milk which contribute to the passive immunization of babies These components can be categorized into several groups according to their function. (1) Anti-infective (2) Anti-allergic (3) Anti-inflammatory (4) Drugs (01) Anti-infective properties The protective effect of breast-feeding against infections is called the Anti-infective propertiesin the newborns immature immune system.As compensation has the baby in the first months trans placental spoken transferred IgG from the mother.In addition, antibodies and other immune components transmitted through breast milk(3).Humoral and Cellular factors are responsible for infant immunological properties.(8) Humoral factors There are various protective factors present in human milk, including immunoglobulin (Ig), lysozymes, the bifidus factor and nutrient-carrier proteins which bind vitamin B12,folate,and iron(in lactoferin) and limit their availability for intestinal bacteria, especially E.coli.(8) The immunoglobulins include IgC, IgM and IgD. The most important of these in man appears to be secretory IgA (sIgA).It defers antigenically from serum IgA. Secretory IgA is especially high in colostrum (2-4 mg/ml). sIgA is a compact molecule, and is resistant to proteolytic enzymes of the gastro-intestinal secretions and low stomach ph. Secretory IgAin human milk is in 10-100 times greater concentrations than in maternal serum.(3,8) In older individuals, sIgA is normally produced by sub epithelial cells in the intestinal tract. (8)During the early weeks of life the neonate does not secret this antibody, so that IgA in colostrum and milk act as an antiseptic intestinal paint, protectingintestinal epithelial surfaces until the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s own immune mechanisms mature. Bifidus factor is an N-containing carbohydrate. It is present in very high concentrations in colostrum.(3,8) It lost if breast milk is boiled. The bifidus factor in human milk (combined with the low pH of the intestinal contents) facilitates the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus (Bifidobacteria),which appears to have an intestinal guardian function, in particular checking the growth of undesirable, possibly harmful organisms, such as pathogenic E.coli. Human milk contains large amounts of lactoferine (2 mg/100 ml) a powerful bacteriostatic.Lactoferin acts synergistically with sIgA. Lactoferin is an unsaturated iron binding compound which competes for iron with enteral organisms.(3) Lysozyme is a well-recognizedanti-infective substance found in breast milk(up to 2mg/100ml).This enzyme inhibits the growth of many bacterial species by disrupting the proteoglycan layer of the bacterial cell wall(3,7). And may play a role in protecting against various viruses, includingHerpes hominis virus. Fresh breast milk has been used in some traditional cultures as eye drops in the treatment of conjunctivitis. (12) Other anti-infective substances which have a similar protective functions are interferon, derived fromlymphocytes, which may have anti-viral properties against neonatal infections with, for example, herpes virus(8) Cellular effects Human milk is a Ã¢â¬Å"live fluidÃ¢â¬ as is blood, with active enzymes (lysozyme, lipase), hormones (corticosteroids) and cells. The primary cell in human milk appears to be the microphages (at least 2700 per Ã µl), with lymphocytes, neutrophils and epithelial cells. The microphages secretelysozyme and lactoferrin. They are motile, amoeboid and phagocytic. Lymphocytes are also abundant in human milk. They produce sIgA and interferon Human breast milk, and especially the early colostrum, contains measurable levels of leukocytes. Breast milk contains up to 4000 leukocyte like cells per micro liter during the first two weeks of life. Colostrum contains approximately 5_106 cells per mL, an amount that decreases tenfold in mature milk. (7,8,3) Most of these leukocytes are macrophages and neutrophils, which phagocytes microbial pathogens. Lymphocytes, including T cells, natural killer cells, and antibody producing B cells, make up 10% of the leukocytes in human breast milk(8). There is evidence to suggest that these cells survive passage through the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s gastrointestinal system where they are absorbed and influence the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s immune response.(11) Anti-allergic properties Allergic diseases in early childhood due to food poisoning seem to be particularly common in all over the world. Many factors are responsible for food allergy in young children, but cowÃ¢â¬â¢s milk proteins such as Ã ±-lactalbumin and Ã ²-lactoglobulin are the commonest allergens. They are not present in human milk.(8,3) The range of diseases due to milk protein intolerance is considerably high and includes atopicdermatitis (infantile eczema) , rhinitis failure to thrive ,otitis media, allergic gastroenteropathy and hypersensivity microhaemorrhages(11). However breast feeding will not eliminate food allergies, not even completely to cowÃ¢â¬â¢s milk. It will however reduce the incidence very gradually and delay their onset.(8) Anti-inflammatory properties Although inflammation is a beneficial defense to the infant, an exaggerated inflammatory response will result in reduced intake, illness, and gut damage. It is not entirely clear whether the exaggerated or unchecked inflammatory response to an infectious challenge occurs only in the gut or whether this extends to the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s systemic immune system. The overall the balance of factors in breast milk appears to dampen the inflammatory response Cytokines such as IL (Interleukin)6, IL10, Interferon, TGFÃ ²(transforming Growth Factor) and TNFR(Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) 1 and 11 are anti-inflammatory factors found in breast milk.(3,2) HMOS (Human Milk Oligosaccharides) in breast milk also act as an anti-inflammatory substance. Inflammation benefits the host as a defense mechanism7 and biological anti-inflammatoryof breast milk minimizes the symptoms without interfering the immune response of the infant(9) Drugs/Chemical Toxicants Potentially toxic chemical substances can be taken orally or intravenously by mothers and those drugs can be excreted in human milk. Very recently (1970), a newly recognizeduncommon form of neonatal jaundice has been described associated with the excretion of 3-Ã ±, 2-Ã ² pregnanediol in the breast milk, which competes for glucuronyl transferase in the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s liver. This condition has never been associated withkernicterus or other type of brain damage.(3,8) Few decades ago, protection from malaria was sought by administering anti-malarial drugs to nursing mother but, werenÃ¢â¬â¢t success.3Some chemical toxicants in drugs can interferewith the metabolism of babies. Ex: Mercury can alter the genetically determined responseof Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and might cause hemolysis.(3,10) Conclusion After birth the infant is having an immature immune system. Its capacity to produce antibodies is low. To compensate this immunodeficiency breast milk provides immunological factors. Infants immune system gradually develop with the age. Accordingly the constituents of breast milk vary with stage of breast feeding. Breast milk contains lot of immunological factors. Early stage of breast milk it has more, rather than later. By supplying immunity breast milk act as a dynamic, multifaceted fluid, containing nutrients and bio active factors needed for the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s health and development. So breast milk is turned out to be the most reliable, safest and cheapest way of supplying nutrients and immunity for the infants. When breast milk provides its immunity it does not cause any other side effects too. So we can finally conclude breast milk as an important mode of passive immunization in babies References (01) Section on Human milk composition Ballard and Morrow pediatrics journal 2013. pg 5263 (02) Section on breastfeeding and health outcomes .Diafericet al pediatrics journal 2013. pg34,5 (03) Human milk in the modern world JelliffeJelliffe. 2nd edition 1979. 85109 (04) Pubmed (05) The normal child.10th edition Roland S Illingworth .2005 (06) Text book of pediatrics .Nelson.19th edition. 2012.pg 28,160 (07) Immunology .RoittBrostoff .4th edition.1996 (08)Journal of nutrition. American society for nutrition. Department of Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care, SpedaliCivili, 25123 Brescia, Italy (09) Breastfeeding, Immune response, and long health. Kelly M. Jackson, PhD, Professor, Medical (11) Breastfeeding for Dummies, comparing formula and breast milk .Sharon Parkins, CarrolVannais (12) Personal information (13). Prentice, A. Regional Variations in the Composition of Human Milk. In: Jensen, RG., editor.Handbook of Milk Composition. Academic Press, Inc.; San Diego, CA: 1995. p. 919 (14). Jensen, RG. Handbook of Milk Composition. Academic Press, Inc.; San Diego, CA: 1995.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Physics of a Car The average driver doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t think about what keeps their car moving or what keeps them on the road, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to. The average driver doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about having enough downforce to keep them on the road or if they will reach the adhesive limit of their carÃ¢â¬â¢s tires around a turn. These are the things are the car designers, professional drivers, racing pit crews, serious sports car owners, and physicist think about. Physics are an important part of every sports and racing car design. The stylish curves and ground effects on sports cars are usually there not just for form but function as well allowing you to go speeds over 140 mph in most serious sports cars and remain on the road and in reasonable control. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The aerodynamic efficiency is the single most important element in designing a competitive car for professional racing or getting the car model on the front of a Car and Driver or Motortrend. Aerodynamics is the study of the motion of gases on objects and the forces created by this motion. The Bernoulli effect is one of the most important behind car design. The Bernoulli Effect states that the pressure of a fluid, in gaseous or liquid state, varies inversely with speed or velocity and a slower moving fluid will exert more pressure on and object than the same fluid moving slower (Yager). The goal of car designers is to make the air passing under a car move faster than the air passing over the car. This causes the air passing over the car to create more downforce than the air passing under the car creates upforce creating a force additional to the carÃ¢â¬â¢s weight pushing the car to the road. Large amounts of downforce are needed to keep light cars grounded at high speed and keep to cars from sliding around turns at high speeds. The Venturi Effect is also an important in aerodynamic design. The Venturi Effect states that as a fluid, in gaseous or liquid state passes through a narrow space its speed increases (Yager). This is the reasoning behind keeping cars as close to the ground as they can be safely. The narrow space between the car and the ground increases the speed of the air flowing beneath it causing a decrease in pressure to do the Bernoulli Effect and increase in downforce. The Venturi Effect is the reason for front ground effects, which feature small air ducts or venturi tunnels. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ... ...both worlds for its purpose, the dragster. The Dragster has extremely wide rear tires for acceleration and to keep it going straight. The dragster has extremely thin tires in the front to reduce rolling resistance and because handling is not a concern the car goes in a straight line it does not need to turn. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In order to have a fast and efficient car all these things I have discussed need to be taken into consideration. A fast car should be designed with aerodynamic surfaces for a balance of maximum production of downforce and minimum drag creating surfaces. It should have as small an engine as possible to reduce mass and reduce the necessary size of the frontal area, but a large enough engine to be able to produce enough horsepower to be able to create more force than the resistance the car faces to accelerate and enough to balance with those forces at high speeds. The tires should be wide enough for fast acceleration and good cornering but not so wide it creates large amounts of rolling resistance. Your overall best example of such a car would be formula one races or Indy cars because they have to have good handling, fast acceleration and reach and maintain high speeds.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Romeo and Juliet - Act III, Scene V Act III, Scene V of Romeo and Juliet is significant for it is the most pivotal scene of this tragic play. Although prior scenes present extreme circumstances, this scene reveals the results of past activities and begins a series of tragic misunderstandings and fatal reactions. Transformations occuring amongst characters and their relationships with one another and the tone of the play are revealed in this scene. Through language, Shakespeare presents these changes as well as foreshadowing the eventual tragedy Romeo and Juliet's death. From this point on in the play there are no more comedic or romantic scenes. The following scenes are of extreme actions, mishap and tragedy. The "star-crossed lovers" cannot escape their fate. One of the many transformations presented in this scene is that of Romeo and Juliet's love for one another. Romeo and Juliet's love makes the transition from infatuation to a deep and sincere love. In earlier scenes they used overly romantic language and metaphor, whereas, now they speak to one another of their love in a mature and tender way. They will do anything to be with one another, for their love surpasses any emotion for their familial or community ties. They are willing to make any sacrifice in order to have their desire for one another fulfilled. Both Romeo and Juliet enjoy each other's company on their first morning together following their marriage and they do not want to part. Juliet's first visible transformation to adulthood is revealed here. In Romeo's desire to be with Juliet, he is willing to risk capture, and most probably death, in being found within the Capulet walls. Romeo, although maturing in his feelings of love and intimacy is still young and reckless in his behavior. In contrast, upon rationalizing the circumstance of daylight and their being found, Juliet eventually pleads for Romeo to leave "O, now be gone! More light and light it grows." (III, v, 35) To which Romeo responds, "More light and light- more dark and dark our woes." (III, v, 36) The metaphors associated with light (i.e. the sun, the moon, the day) which previously protected their affair is now their enemy. Nature itself has turned upon them